Fiqh of salawaat

Fiqh of salawaat

 

The Fiqh of Salawat

by Sayyid Sohail Hanif

 

 

 

 

 

Åðæñî Çääñîçî èîåîäîÇÆðãîÊîçï êïÕîäñïèæî Ùîäîé ÇäæñîÈðêñð êîÇ ÃîêñïçîÇ ÇäñîÐðêæî ÂåîæïèÇ ÕîäñïèÇ Ùîäîêòçð èîÓîäñðåïèÇ ÊîÓòäðêåÇë

 

 

 

 

 

In the name of Allah, the inspirer of truth. All praise is to Allah, Most Merciful and Compassionate, and all blessings and peace to our Master Muhammad, his family, companions, and those who follow them.

Allah Most High says “Allah and His angels send blessings on the Prophet, O you who believe, send blessings on him and salute him with all respect.” [Qur'an, 33:56]

The Messenger of Allah (Allah bless him and give him peace) said “The one in whose presence I am mentioned and does not send blessings on me is a miser.” [Reported by Tirmidhi, who declared it well and rigorously authenticated].

The meaning of sending blessings on the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace)

The great 19th Century Shaykh al-Azhar, Imam Bajuri mentions in his supercommentary (hashiya) on the Sanusiyya in aqida,

“There are three meanings for salat (‘sending blessings’): The first is purely linguistic and it is prayer (du`a) in it’s most general sense. The second is purely legal and it is the spoken elements and physical actiosns that start with the saying Allahu Akbar (‘Allah is most great’) and ends with the greetings of peace (taslim), with specific preconditions. [f: Namely, the ritual prayer.] The third is both linguistic and legal. According to the majority, it is mercy when attributed to Allah; and seeking forgiveness (istighfar) when attributed to any other than Him, whether angels and others. As for the word ‘salam’, it’s meaning is security. The purpose of this is to reassuring the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) about what he fears for his nation.Some have explained it as greeting, meaning, when attributed to Allah, that He address him with His beginninglessly eternal speech to indicate the loftiness of his immense rank.” [Ibrahim al-Bajuri, Hashiya al-Bajuri `ala al-Sanusiyya, pg 7, Mustafa al-Babi al-Halabi]

Imam al-Sakhawi, in his Qawl al-Badi`, added that linguistically, the word salat (‘sending blessings’) returns to two meanings. The first is supplication (du`a) and seeking blessings (tabarruk). Allah’s saying, “And pray for them, Indeed you prayer is a source of tranquillity,” carries this sense. The second meaning is worship. It can also be used to mean seeking forgiveness (istighfar), blessings (baraka), recitation, mercy, and forgiveness. Therefore, the meaning of the word salat depends on the context, as well as the one offering it, and the one it is being directed to.

The ruling of sending the peace and blessing on him (May Allah bless him and give him peace)

Imam Haskafi mentions in his Durr al-Mukhtar concerning sending the peace and blessings on the prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace),

“It is obligatory once in a persons life, without any difference of opinion.and it is differed upon concerning it’s necessity every time he is mentioned (Allah bless him and give him peace) the chosen opinion according to Tahawi is that it is necessary (wajib) every time he is mentioned and the opinion of the school is that is repreating it is recommended [f: that is, saying it once in a session is necessary, and repeating it every time the Prophet's name is mentioned is recommended].”

Ibn Abidin explains,

“Sending of blessings on the prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) is necessary once in each session [where his name is mentioned]…and its repetition is recommended [if the Prophet's name (Allah bless him and give him peace) is repeated].” [Radd al-Muhtar `ala al-Durr al-Mukhtar, 1:246, Bulaq ed.]

This was taken from the position verified by Imam Abu’l Barakat al-Nasafi in his al-Kafi and Imam Kamal ibn al-Humam in his Zad al-Faqir.

Places and time when the sending of peace and blessings on the Prophet (Allah bless him and give him peace) is recommended

Imam al-Haskafi mentions,

“It is recommended in all times, when possible.”

Ibn ‘Abidin adds,

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