Refutations of Ibn Taymiyya’s Two Tawheeds

Refutations of Ibn Taymiyya’s Two Tawheeds

by Abu Haamed Ibn Marzooq on Ibn Taymiyyah

The (division of tawHeed into) Oneness of Godhead (tawHeed al-uloohiyya) and Oneness of Lordship (tawHeed al-ruboobiyya) was invented by Ibn Taymiyya who claimed that all Muslims among the (Ash`ari) theologians (al-mutakallimeen) worshipped other than Allah due to their ignorance of ‘tawHeed al-uloohiyya,’ and he claimed that they only knew, of tawHeed, the ‘tawHeed al-ruboobiyya’ which consists in affirming that Allah is the Creator of all things, and he claims that the polytheists (al-mushrikoon) admitted it also. He therefore declared all Muslims to be unbelievers (kaafir), and Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab imitated him in this, and others imitated Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab in it.

The late savant al-Sayyid Ahmad ibn Zayni Dahlan (d. 1304 H) looked into this particular matter in a small section of his treatise ‘al-durar al-saniyya fi al-radd `ala al-wahhaabiyya’ [The Resplendent Pearls in Refuting the Wahhabis], and so did the savant al-Shaykh Ibrahim al-Samnudi al-Mansuri (d. 1314 H) who spoke excellently in his book ‘sa`aadat al-daarayn fi al-radd `ala al-firqatayn al-wahhaabiyya wa al-zaahiriyya‘ [The Bliss of the Two Abodes in the Refutation of the Two Sects: Wahhabis and Zahiris], and the late savant al-Shaykh Salaama al-`Azzami (1376 H) also wrote valuable words about it in his book ‘al-baraaheen al-saaTi`a fi raddi ba`D al-bida` al-shaa’i`a’ [The Radiant Proofs in Refuting Some Widespread Innovations]…

I myself have looked at the words of Ibn Taymiyya on the subject of ‘tawHeed al-ruboobiyya’ and ‘tawHeed al-uloohiyya’ in four different places within his books, and I mention these words in their totality for the reader’s perusal, before turning to refute them.

1. Fatawi‘ of Ibn Taymiyya vol. 1 p. 219

On the explanation of the Prophet’s (s) saying: “wa la yanfa`u dhal jaddi minka al-jadd” (3:27) [Riches and good fortune will not profit the possessor thereof with You]:

“He has shown in this saying two great principles (aSlayn `azeemayn): the first is ‘tawHeed al-ruboobiyya,’ and it is that there is no giver for what Allah has prevented, and there is no preventer for what He has given, and that He is the only one to be relied upon, and the only one to be asked from; the second principle is ‘tawHeed al-ilaahiyya,’ and it is the exposition of what benefits and what does not benefit, and that he who receives money or worldly status or leadership derives no benefit therefrom before Allah nor salvation from His punishment. For Allah the Exalted gives worldly status both to whom He loves and whom He does not love, while He does not grant belief (imaan) except to whom He loves…

” …’TawHeed al-ilaahiyya’ is that one worship Allah and not associate anyone nor anything in partnership to Him, and obey Him and His Messengers, and do what He likes and what He is pleased with. ‘TawHeed al-ruboobiyya’ entails what He has decreed and made to pass, even if it includes what He did not order nor made obligatory nor held pleasing to Him. The servant is ordered (also) to worship Allah and to do what He has been ordered, and this is ‘tawHeed al-ilaahiyya,’ and to seek forgiveness from Allah in relation to this, and this is tawHeed to Him, and thus he says: ” iyyaaka na`budu wa iyyaaka nasta`een ” [Thee alone do we worship and Thee alone do we ask for help].”

2.Fatawa’ of Ibn Taymiyya vol. 2 p. 275

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