Questions on `Aqida

Can an ahad hadith be used for `Aqida?

Question:

Does any scholar ever say that we can not take into aqeedah an ahad hadith?

Answer:

Most of the Fuqaha’ and Ahl al-Hadith say it from the time of the Salaf to ours with the exception of the likes of Ibn al-Qayyim and al-Albani. This does not mean that one is free to reject any and all lone-narrator reports as not binding! On the contrary, as we said, they are binding, but are not retained to define the `aqda of every Muslim for to deny any aspect of the latter is kufr whereas as we said the denial of any ahad hadith is only fisq.

Calling a Muslim ‘kafir’

Question:

What is the ruling on a Muslim that calls another Muslim kafir and publishes it?

Answer:

Ibn `Abidin in his Rasa’il (2:291 Sall al-Husam al-Hindi) said that a Muslim who unjustly calls another Muslim kafir commits kufr if he really considers him kafir but not if he only intents to insult him. In the latter case he only commits fisq. We seek refuge in Allah from the accusations of the ignorant and the fitan of our times.

Is wiping over khuffs a tenet of faith?

Question:

What is the ruling on a person that does not believe in wiping over the leather socks as a practice of the Prophet (s) and is it part of `Aqeedah - tenets of Faith?

Answer:

He is a person of innovation and one should not pray behind him due to his belief that wiping over the khuffs is not a Sunna; however, there is no consensus that it is part of `aqida to believe in its Sunna character, hence Imam Abu Hanifa only said: “I FEAR disbelief (kufr) for one who denies it,” i.e. it may lead him to kufr without consisting in kufr by itself. And Allah knows best.

`Aqida and tasdiq

Question:

Is there a difference between AQEEDAH AND TASDEEQ, believing  and trusting; meaning that belief is 100% but trusting is not?

Answer:

`Aqida is the general term for belief, of which tasdeeq is a part. But tasdeeq is not just “trusting”: it means confirmation i.e. with the tongue. One definition of iman goes: “`aqd bil-qalb wa tasdiq bil-lisan wal-`amal bil-arkan” i.e. conviction in the heart; confirmation with the tongue; and deeds with the limbs. However, there is Consensus that the most essential part and the indispensable foundation of Islamic belief is conviction in the heart. Yet the latter is not sufficient to be considered a Muslim and confirmation must be added. Then confirmation becomes insufficient and deeds must join it. In this respect there is a difference between `aqd, tasdeeq, and `amal, all of which form belief. Similarly in the hadith of Gibril a difference is made between iman and islam although in a different context one never goes without the other.

Do some matters make one a fasiq?

Question:

Are there matters in Aqeedah that does not make one kafir but Fasiq?

Answer:

Plenty of matters, although they are more properly called bid`a which is worse than fisq. This is the case of the beliefs held by most of the seventy-two sects that are in the Fire. For example, not believing in the life of the grave; or not believing that our Prophet (saws) is alive in his grave and returning our Salam [e.g. Albani]; or believing that Allah Most High is actually on top of the seventh heaven, sitting on a Throne although this may be kufr (cf. Ibn Nujaym, al-Bahr al-Ra’iq 5:129-130); or, as held by the Shi`is that the Qur’an is created and that there is no such thing as the vision of Allah Most High in the Hereafter; or that for a Muslim to commit a grave sin is kufr; or that Allah is “like a king who is unable to contravene the law of his kingdom and needs a good reason to allow his minister to intercede for a thief” as in the chapter on Intercession in the book Taqwiyat al-Iman; or that Prophets are “only human beings like you and me” and that their `Isma – immunity to sin – is sometimes suspended, as held by al-Mawdudi.

Following only one school of fiqh

Question:

If one follows a school of fiqh does he have to follow it in every matter;  if he does not, is he a person of bidah?

Answer:

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