About the Ghawth, Qutb, Abdal, Awtad, Akhyar

16) In ‘At tamheed’ of `Allamah Ibn `Abdul Barr (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) there are numerous places where certain narrators were said to be Abdaals. Amongst others, the following were said to be from the Abdaals. A) Ma’dy bin Sulayman Al Hannat (1/368). B) Ibnul Mubarak said that if there is any Abdaal in Khuraasaan, it is Ma’daan (7/142). C) Khalaf said “Insha Allah, Abdul Hameed bin Ahmad bin Easa Al Warraaq is a Abdaal (24/159).

17) Nawawi (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) in Bustan al-`arifin (pg 31) mentions that Hammad bin Salimah was considered as an Abdaal.

18) `Allamah `Ayni (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) mentions in his magnificent commentary of Al Bukhari, Umdah al Qari that Hammad bin Salimah bin Dinar was considered as an Abdaal. (Baab ma yaqool inda al khala) In another place (commentary of hadith 1432) it is mentioned that Abu Tawbah Rabi bin Nafi was considered to be from the Abdaal. Under the commentary of hadith 5532, it is mentioned that Khattab was from the Abdaals.

19) In Allamah Ayni’s commentary of Abu Dawood it is stated that Yahyah bin Maeen and Abu Hatim considered the brother of Mugheirah to be from the Abdaals.

20) In Fath al bari (1/357), Hafidh Ibn Hajar (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) quoted a sanad of Musnad Abi Awwanah in which it is mentioned that Abu Ibrahim Az Zuhri was an Abdaal.

21) In `Allamah Zurqani’s commentary of Muwattah Imam Malik it is stated that Shaadhkooni said: “…Ma’di was considered to be from the Abdaal.” Also quoted in Mir’aat (3/412).

22) In Faid al Qadeer (2/538) it is mentioned that Ali bin Umar Al Harbi is from the Abdaals.

Similarly, Scholars of hadith also described some narrators as ‘Aqtaab’. Consider the following

1) Ibn al Atheer (may Allah Ta’ala be pleases with him) noted that Sufyan at Thawri was from the Aqtaab. (Jami al usool fi Ahadith ar Rasool 12/466)

2) Abu al Wafa Al Qurashi (may Allah be pleased with him) has also mentioned that Sufyan at Thawri was from the Aqtaab of Islam. (Tabaqaat al hanafiyyah 1/546)

3) Umar bin Ali Al Jazzairi (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) wrote a kitab ‘Ibtisaam al uroos’ in which he termed Shaykh Ahmad bin Uroos as qutb al Aqtaab. (Al A’laam li az Zarqali 1/169).

4) Ibn Farhoon (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) has described Ali bin Muhammad bin Abdul Haq Az Zurwaili as a Qutb. (Ad Debaaj al mudhahab fi ma’rifati a’yaan Ulama al madhab 1/116).

5) Ibn al Mulaqqin (may Allah Ta’ala be pleased with him) mentioned that Fudhail bin Ayaaz was from the Aqtaab. (Tabaqaat al Awliyah 1/44). At another place (1/64) he mentioned that Abu Sulayman Ad Daaraani Al Anasy was from the Awtaad and Aqtaab.

The above statements prove that the term ‘Abdaal’ and ‘Aqtaab’ were commonly known and used amongst the Muhaddithoon and other early scholars. (They are not something innovated, especially since Muhaddithoon – who were extremely precautious against innovations – mentioned them). Khateeb Al Baghdaadi (may Allah be pleased with him) has opined in his ‘Sharf Ashaab al Hadeeth’ (pg 100/101) that Abdaals are (mostly) found amongst the Scholars of hadith. The Shaykh of `Allamah Ibn al Qayyim, `Allamah Ibn Taymiyyah has also quoted in his Majmu`ah al fatawa (4/97) that the knowledgeable always considered Abdaals to be from the Ashaab al hadeeth.

As for the statement which you have quoted from Allamah Ibn al Qayyim (may Allah be pleased with him), the exact wording of it is as follows

ومن ذلك أحاديث الأبدال والأقطاب والأغواث والنقباء والنجباء والأوتاد كلها باطلة على رسول الله صلى الله عليه و سلم «المنار المنيف» (ج 1 / ص 136)

This statement is incorrect. There are numerous Ahadith which proves the existence of Abdaals. Allamah Munawi (may Allah be pleased with him) quoted that the master in hadith, Hafiz Ibn Hajar (may Allah be pleased with him) mentioned in one of his verdicts

وقال شيخه ابن حجر في فتاويه : الأبدال وردت في عدة أخبار منها ما يصح وما لا وأما القطب فورد في بعض الآثار «فيض القدير» (ج 3 / ص 220 دار الكتب العلمية)

((Abdaals are mentioned in many Ahadith, some are authentic whereas others are weak. Qutb is also mentioned in some Ahadith)) (Faid al Qadeer 3/220)

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