The Melungeons – Muslims in America Before Columbus ?

*When Muslims came to Spain, its natives were called Vandals. So the Muslims called the land Anadalus – the Arabisation of the word Vandalusia.

In 1469, Ferdinand of Aragaon married Isabella of Castile, thereby uniting these two warring Christian kingdoms. This union subsequently sounded the deathknell for the Muslims in Spain who had already lost territory in quick succession such as Cordoba (1236), Valencia (1238), Seville (1248), Lisbon, Malaga, Toledo, etc through internal feuding amongst themselves.

The Roman Catholic Church having launched Inquisitions in France, Italy in the 13th century which wiped out Unitarian Christians, extended it to Spain in 1481 to kill or forcibly convert heathens or heretics, namely Unitarian Christians and Muslims.

Isabella proved herself to be one of the greatest quartermaster generals of all time in supplying the Christian armies to drive the Muslims out. She was responsible for inflicting more torture and burning at the stake of mostly innocent people than any other monarch; for it was under her that the Inquisition was established and carried out its terrible work with her fervid blessing [pg.78, -1]. In the Inquisition, millions of Muslims were inhumanely treated, enslaved, tortured, burned, persecuted, forcibly baptised; and had property confiscated.

1492 marked a new age for Europe – after nearly 800 hundred years the Roman Catholic Church was well on its way in reuniting the whole of Spain into Christendom. On 2nd January, 1492, the last Muslim foothold in Spain, Granada was overrun by Christian armies.

Thus ended the power, wealth and elegance of Al-Andalus. In fact Al-Andalus was part of a wider Islamic world. Not only did Al-Andalus embrace more in the peninsula than is covered by the modern word `Anualusia’, but it was part of an Islamic `West’ which at its height embraced much of North Africa and Sicily, too. It was also part of an even larger economic sphere. After the Abbasid revolution of 750, the Islamic world was a single commercial entity, a free trade area with all that implied for goods and travellers, stretching as far as Persia in the East. Many of its inhabitants were Arabised and spoke Arabic, with ethnic groups within it were effectively equal : only faith divided men legally. Al-Andalus was a world of ideas – a civilisation in fact. [Pg.138, 41].

The essence of the reconquest of Spain was the transfer of power from Muslim to Christian rulers. To that process, there contributed greedy princes, fanatical bigots, roughneck French knights looking for fighting, Castilian squires seeking land and booty, as well as selfless heroes, saints and martyrs. [pg.144,41].

The destruction of the Islamic state in Spain was carefully planned, to ensure that Muslims from Africa were not in a position to assist their co-religionists in Spain. With two year’s preparation and a papal bull, a Crusade was launched on August 24, 1415 against Ceuta, a Muslim stronghold and trading centre on the African side opposite to Gibraltar. The Portuguese Armada, well armed, and supported by a contingent of English archers overwhelmed the Muslims. Within a day the Crusaders had taken Ceuta. Having ransacked and piled the streets with dead Muslims, the city was left profitless. [Pg.160,55].

When the most powerful state in Europe fell to Christendom, Ferdinand and Isabella appointed Columbus, a Genoese (north west Italy) (possibly a convert from Judaism to Christianity [pg. 22, 34]) seafarer `to go by way of the West to India’, and appointed him high admiral of the Ocean Sea and made him Viceroy and perpetual governor of any lands he discovered.

Eight months later, Columbus set sail in the name of the Trinity – the Father, the son from the harbour of the sleepy little town of Palos de la Frontera, Granada, Spain on the morning of August 3, 1492. He first sailed down the West coast of Africa to the Canary Islands to take on wood and water and to refit; then he sailed across the Atlantic Ocean. In the same year, on Oct. 13, 1492 he discovered the West Indies (San Salvador). [13]. 1492 is also the year in which Rodrigo Borgia – a fat an intensely ugly Spaniard became Pope Alexander 6th [Pg.A7, 5].

`Description of the world’ by Pierre d’Ailley, the reforming Cardinal of Tournia was Columbus’s favourite reading. D’Ailley introduced Columbus to Arabic sources and computations of Alfraganus, as the name of the Islamic geographer Al-Farghani. Columbus also studied the `Universal History’ by Aeneas Sylvius Piccolomini, also known as Pharaoh (Pope) Pius 2nd.

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But what was the purpose of Columbus’s voyage ? The answer is incredibly easy to find. It is actually written in the prologue of Columbus’ journal. Here is an extract of the prologue:

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