footnotes on the unseen-ghayb
1 Fath al-Bari, Tafsir Surat Luqman, ayat: “Allah has knowledge of the Hour.” (1989 ed. 8:660).
2 al-Qurtubi as quoted by Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari (1989 ed.) 12:449.
3 al-Baydawi, Anwar al-tanzil in Majma` al-tafasir 3:149.
4 Narrated from Ibn `Umar by Ahmad (2:85); Tabarani in the Kabir (12:361), Hatythami in Majma` al-zawa’id (8:263), Ibn Kathir in his Tafsir 6:355, and Suyuti in his Tafsir al-Durr al-manthur (5:169). Haythami said: “The sub-narrators in Ahmad’s chain are the men of sound (sahih) narration.”
5 Narrated from Ibn Mas`ud by Ahmad and Ibn `Adi. Haythami in Majma` al-zawa’id (8:263) says: “The sub-narrators in both chains are the men of sound (sahih) narration.”
6 Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari (Dar al-fikr ed. 1:124 and 8:514).
7 Ahmad narrated it and Ibn Kathir mentions it in his Tafsir for Surat Luqman. al-Haythami said in Majma` al-zawa’id (#116): “Abu Dawud narrates part of it, and all of the sub-narrators in Ahmad’s chain are trustworthy and they are Imams.”
8 al-Qari, Jam` al-wasa’il (Cairo, 1317 H) p. 209
9 al-Qari, al-Asrar al-marfu`a (#478, p. 126).
10 al-Haythami said: “Ahmad (4:303 #18718) narrated it and its chain contain Maymun Abu `Abd Allah. Ibn Hibban declared him trustworthy while a group of others declared him weak. The remainder of its sub-narrators are trustworthy.”
11 Ibn Hisham relates it in his Sira (Beirut, dar al-wifaq ed. 3-4: 219) and also Ibn Kathir in al-Bidaya (4:99).
12 Ibn Hisham, Sira 3-4:219.
13 Haythami says in Majma` al-zawa’id (9:24 #91): “al-Bazzar relates it and its sub-narrators are all sound (rijaluhu rijal al-sahih).” Qadi `Iyad cites it in al-Shifa (1:56 of the Amman edition). Suyuti said in his Manahil al-safa fi takhrij ahadith al-shifa (Beirut 1988/1408) p. 31 (#8): “Ibn Abi Usama cites it in his Musnad from the hadith of Bakr ibn `Abd Allah al-Muzani, and al-Bazzar from the hadith of Ibn Mas`ud with a sound (sahih) chain.” Ibn al-Jawzi mentions it through Bakr and then again through Anas ibn Malik in the penultimate chapter of the penultimate section of al-Wafa, and also mentions the version through Aws ibn Aws with a sound chain: “The actions of human beings are shown to me every Thursday on the night of (i.e. preceding) Friday.” See also Fath al-Bari 10:415, al-Mundhiri’s al-Targhib wa al-Tarhib 3:343, and Musnad Ahmad 4:484.
14 The translation from Qadi `Iyad is by `A’isha Bint `Abdurrahman Bewley with slight modifications, from the Madinah Press edition entitled Muhammad Messenger of Allah: ash-Shifa’ of Qadi `Iyad, 2nd ed. (Granada: Madinah Press, 1992) p. 186-193.
15 Bukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawud.
16 Narrated in Tabarani and Ahmad with a sound (sahih) chain according to Haythami in Majma` al-zawa’id. Also narrated by Abu Ya`la and Ibn Mani`.
17 Those who strictly bound themselves to the criteria of soundness in narrating hadith, such as Bukhari, Muslim, Ibn Hibban, Ibn Khuzayma, and al-Hakim in their well-known books.
18 Such as Malik, Ahmad, and the rest of the authors of the Six Books and others, i.e. those who did not strictly bind themselves to to the criteria of soundness in narrating hadith.
19 al-Imam al-hafiz Abu al-hasan `Ali ibn `Abd Allah al-Madini (pr. ma-dEE-ni). He narrated hadith from his father and from Hammad ibn Zayd and a large number of hadith masters. From him narrated Bukhari, Abu Dawud, al-Baghawi, Abu Ya`la. His shaykh `Abd al-Rahman ibn Mahdi said: “`Ali ibn al-Madini is the most knowledgeable of all human beings in the hadith of Allah’s Messenger, especially concerning what Ibn `Uyayna narrates. Do you blame me for loving `Ali ibn al-Madini too much? By Allah, I learn more from him than he does from me.” Yahya al-Qattan (al-Madini’s shaykh and that of Ahmad ibn Hanbal) said the same about him. Bukhari said: “I did not think little of myself except in front of `Ali (ibn al-Madini).” al-Nasa’i said: “It is as if Allah created him only for this science (hadith).” He died in Samarra. The name of Madini is related to the city of the Prophet. This was said by Ibn al-Athir. As for al-Jawhari, he said that the latter would be “Madani” (pr. ma-da-nEE) and that “Madini” was related to the city built by the caliph al-Mansur.
20 Ahmad and Tabarani from Abu Umama.
21 A place between Basra and mecca where `A’isha stayed when she was trying to intercede between `Ali and Mu`awiya.
22 al-Hajjaj was a tyrant while al-Mukhtar was a Khariji.
23 I.e. exaggeration in shaving the head. This was one of the marks of the Wahhabis as pointed out by al-`Alawi al-Haddad and others. It is known that Ibn `Abidin called the Wahhabis Kharijis in his Hashiyat al-durr al-mukhtar. It is also said that tahliq here means: sitting in circles.
24 From Asma’ Bint Yazid: Abu Dharr (al-Ghifari) used to serve the Prophet and when he finished he would go to the masjid and sleep, and the masjid was his house. One time the Prophet came in and found Abu Dharr lying on the ground. He nudged him with his foot and Abu Dharr sat up. The Prophet said: “Sleeping?” He replied: “O Messenger of Allah, where else can I sleep? I have no house other than this.” The Prophet said: “What will you do if they expel you from it?” He said: “I will repair to Syria, for verily Syria is the land of migration, the land of the Gathering (on the Day of Judgment), and the land of Prophets. I shall be one of its dwellers.” The Prophet said: “What will you do if they expel you from Syria?” He said: “I will come back here and make it my house and my dwelling.” The Prophet said: “What if they expel you from it a second time?” He replied: “Then I will take up my sword and fight them off until I die.” The Prophet looked displeased and he held him firmly and said: “Shall I tell you of a better way?” He said: “Yes, may my father and mother be ransomed for you, O Messenger of Allah!” The Prophet said: “Let them lead you whither they lead you, and let yourself be taken whither they take you, until you meet me again in that very state.” Ahmad narrated it with one weak sub-narrator (Shahr ibn Hawshab), however, some have declared him reliable, e.g. Ibn Hajar in “Fath al-Bari” 3:65 and al-Hafiz al-Dhahabi. The hadiths of Abu Dharr’s death and the prediction of its circumstances are narrated by Ibn Rahawyh, Ibn Abi Usama, and al-Bayhaqi: Umm Dharr (his wife) wept as he lay on his deathbed and upon his questioning she replied: “Why should I not weep seeing you die in a desert land and I have not even enough in my possession for my own shroud, nor yours?” He said: “Good tidings to you, and don’t weep! for I heard the Prophet say to a large group as I was among them: One of you will die in a deserted land, with a handful of Muslims for witnesses. None of that large group remains and all of them died in a town surrounded by many. Therefore I am that one…” From Ibn Mas`ud: When the Prophet went out on the campaign of Tabuk Abu Dharr lagged behind due to his old camel. They complained of it to the Prophet who said: “Leave him be, for perhaps there is good in it, and Allah will make him catch up with you.” When Abu Dharr saw that his camel was too slow, he carried his own gear and continued on foot, following the traces of Allah’s Messenger alone in the heat. When the Prophet saw him his eyes filled with tears and he said: “May Allah have mercy on Abu Dharr! He walks alone, and he shall die alone, and he shall be resurrected alone. Ibn Hajar mentions in al-Isaba that Ibn Ishaq narrated it with a weak chain.
It was so when he died in al-Rabdha, for there was no one with him except his wife and his young boy. After they washed him and shrouded him they waited by the side of the road for someone to help bury him. `Abd Allah ibn Mas`ud came with a following of the people of Iraq. When the boy saw them he jumped up to them and said: “This is Abu Dharr, the Companion of Allah’s Messenger! Therefore, help us to bury him.” Ibn Mas`ud came down and wept saying: “Allah’s Messenger told the truth.”
Abu Dharr had heard from the Prophet that one must not hoard up provision for more than a certain time. During the caliphate of
Sayiddina `Uthman, people became quite well-off. Abu Dharr used to come out and preach against this and say they were wrong to store up and save. The people complained to Sayyidina `Uthman. Whenever Abu Dharr met sayyidina `Uthman, may Allah be well pleased with both of them, Abu Dharr would recite to him the verse:
9:35 On the day when it will (all) be heated in the Fire, and their foreheads and their flanks and their backs will be branded therewith (and it will be said unto them): Here is that which ye hoarded for yourselves. Now taste of what ye used to hoard. Finally he called Abu Dharr and told him to stop. When Abu Dharr refused, saying he must convey what was told to him, `Uthman exiled him from Madina. al-Qari says: `Uthman exiled him to Syria, then he brought him back to Madina, then exiled him again to al-Rabdha, a village in ruins, where he stayed until his death.
Abu Dharr was evidently the strictest and most austere of the Companions in light of the ahadith related from and about him. He was a Sufi-like Companion and is known as “al-zahid” or the ascetic in the biographical dictionaries. He was extremely scrupulous and direct. The author of Hayat al-Sahaba mentions Sufyan al-Thawri’s relation that Abu Dharr used to stand by the Ka`ba and shout at the people: “Greed has killed you! You can never fulfill your greed!”
The following is illustrative of Abu Dharr’s manner:
Ahmad (1:63) relates on the authority of Abu Dharr that the latter came to ask something from `Uthman ibn `Affan and he had his staff in his hand. `Uthman then asked, “O Ka`b, `Abd al-Rahman [ibn `Awf] has died and has left money behind. What is your opinion on it?” He replied, “If he paid Allah’s dues with his money [i.e. his debts], then we may use it.” Abu Dharr raised his staff and hit Ka`b with it. Then he said: “I heard the Prophet say: If this entire mountain of gold were mine to spend and it were accepted, I would not like to leave behind even six ounces of it.” I adjure you by Allah, `Uthman, did you hear it? Did you hear it? Did you hear it?” `Uthman said: na`am (Yes)!
This is the account of Abu Dharr’s conversion in Sahih Bukhari:
[English by Khan with slight modifications. Volume 5, Book 58, Number 201:]
Narrated Ibn `Abbas:
When Abu Dharr received the news of the Advent of the Prophet he said to his brother, “Ride to this valley (of Mecca) and try to find out the truth of the person who claims to be a prophet who is informed of the news of Heaven. Listen to what he says and come back to me.” So his brother set out and came to the Prophet and listened to some of his talks, and returned to Abu Dharr and said to him. “I have seen him enjoining virtuous behavior and saying something that is not poetry.” Abu Dharr said, “You have not satisfied me as to what I wanted.” He then took his journey-food and carried a water-skin of his, containing some water till be reached Mecca. He went to the Mosque and searched for the Prophet and though he did not know him, he hated to ask anybody about him. When a part of the night had passed away, `Ali saw him and knew that he was a stranger. So when Abu Dharr saw `Ali, he followed him, and none of them asked his companion about anything, and when it was dawn, Abu Dharr took his journey food and his water-skin to the Mosque and stayed there all the day long without being perceived by the Prophet, and when it was evening, he came back to his retiring place. `Ali passed by him and said, “Has the man not known his dwelling place yet?” So `Ali awakened him and took him with him and none of them spoke to the other about anything. When it was the third day. `Ali did the same and Abu Dharr stayed with him. Then `Ali said “Will you tell me what has brought you here?” Abu Dharr said, “If you give me a firm promise that you will guide me, then I will tell you.” `Ali promised him, and he informed `Ali about the matter. `Ali said, “It is true, and he is the Apostle of Allah. Next morning when you get up, accompany me, and if I see any danger for you, I will stop as if to pass water, but if I go on, follow me and enter the place which I will enter.” Abu Dharr did so, and followed `Ali till he entered the place of the Prophet, and Abu Dharr went in with him, Abu Dharr listened to some of the Prophet’s talks and embraced Islam on the spot. The Prophet said to him, “Go back to your people and inform them (about it) till you receive my order.” Abu Dharr said, “By Him in Whose Hand my life is, I will proclaim my conversion loudly amongst them (i.e. the pagans).” So he went out, and when he reached the Mosque, he said as loudly as possible, “I bear witness that there is no god except Allah, and Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah.” The People got up and beat him painfully. Then al-`Abbas came and knelt over him (to protect him) and said (to the people), “Woe to you! Don’t you know that this man belongs to the tribe of Ghifar and your trade to Sha’m is through their way?” So he rescued him from them. Abu Dharr again did the same the next day. They beat him and took vengeance on him and again al-`Abbas knelt over him.
Ibn Hajar says about him in al-Isaba fi tamyiz al-sahaba:
“The famous ascetic who spoke frankly… His full name was Jundub ibn Janada ibn Sakan; it was also said he was called Ibn `Abd Allah, or Barir, or Burayr, or al-Sakan ibn Janada… He was tall, of dark complexion, and thin… al-Tabarani cited the hadith from Abu al-Darda’ whereby the Prophet always looked for Abu Dharr when he was present, and missed him when he was absent. Ahmad mentioned the hadith whereby the Prophet said: “The one of you sitting closest to me on the Day of rising is he who leaves this world in the same condition as on the day I left him;” Abu Dharr added: and, by Allah there is none among you except he has lusted for something in the world except I.” Its sub-narrators are trustworthy except that the link [of the Tabi`i] is missing, as I don’t think `Arrak ibn Malik narrated from Abu al-Darda’…
Abu Dawud cited with a good chain `Ali’s saying: “Abu Dharr is a large vessel full of knowledge, and he became helpless about it.” Abu Dawud and Ahmad narrated from `Abd Allah ibn `Umar that the Prophet said: “Neither dust has carried nor green has shaded one more frank of speech than Abu Dharr.”… After he met the Prophet, Abu Dharr went to the Ka`ba and began shouting at the top of his lungs: I bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is His servant and Messenger! whereupon the people pounced on him and beat him until he could not get up. al-`Abbas rescued him and said to the people: Woe to you! He is from Ghifar, on the trade route to Damascus. Then Abu Dharr came back the next day and did the same, whereupon they beat him again and al-`Abbas rescued him again…
He died in al-Rabdha in the year 31 or 32. The majority think the latter. It is said in a story related with a passable chain that Ibn Mas`ud led the funeral prayer over him. al-Mada’ini (i.e. al-hafiz `Ali al-Madini) says the same and adds that Ibn Mas`ud then returned to Madina and died shortly afterwards.” End of Ibn hajar’s words in al-Isaba.
25 al-Bayhaqi narrates it. `Ali al-Qari in his commentary on Qadi `Iyad said: al-Khatib said: He became Muslim. Others said: He died as a Christian. The contradiction is resolved by the fact that he became Muslim and then apostatized. Ibn Mindah and Abu Nu`aym in their books entitled “Ma`rifat al-sahaba” (Knowledge of who the Companions were) said He became Muslim and gifted the Prophet a mantle of brocade [hillatun siyara’ — note that the latter adjective also denotes, as a noun, the veil over the heart] which the Prophet gave to `Umar. Ibn al-Athir said [in his own dictionary of the Companions entitled Usd al-ghaba]: Concerning the approach and the gift they are right, but concerning his Islam they were mistaken, for there is no disagreement among the authors of biographies that he was not a Muslim [i.e. when he died]. He was a Christian when the Prophet approached him, then he went back to his stronghold and remained there until Khalid surrounded him in the time of Abu Bakr, and killed him as a Christian idolater for breaching his trust. Ibn al-Athir continues: al-Baladuri mentioned that Ukaydar came to the Prophet and then went back to Duma, also called Duma al-Jundul, a place between Hijaz and Syria, then, when the Prophet died, he apostatized. When Khalid marched from Iraq to Syria he killed him.
26 Narrated by Bukhari.
27Narrated by Bukhari.
28Narrated by Bukhari and Muslim.
29From the translation of Qadi `Iyad al-Maliki’s al-Shifa’ by `A’isha Bewley, Madinah Press, p. 277-278.
30Haythami in Majma` al-zawa’id says: “Ahmad relates it, and Tabrani relates something similar, and the men in its chain of transmission has been declared trustworthy.” Also related through several chains by Abu Dawud, Ahmad, Baghawi in Sharh al-Sunna, al-Hakim in the Mustadrak, Ibn `Asakir, Ibn Abi al-Dunya in Kitab al-ikhwan, Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, Ibn Abi Hatim, Ibn Mardawayh, and others.
31Nasafi, Madarik al-tanzil 27:40.
32al-Tahawi, `Aqida tahawiyya 98.
33Bukhari and Muslim.
34All four in Bukhari, Book of the interpretation of dreams.
35Bukhari narrates it in the book of knowledge of his Sahih.
36English Sahih Bukhari, Volume 4, Book 56, Number 841.
37Narrated by Tabarani in his Mu`jam al-Kabir, al-Bazzar, Suyuti in his Jami` al-saghir, al-Haythami in Majma` al-zawa’id in the “Chapter on the Reality of Belief and its Perfection” (bab haqiqat al-iman wa kamalih), al-`Askari, Ibn al-Mubarak in Kitab al-zuhd, `Abd al-Razzaq through two chains, Ibn Mindah, Bayhaqi in Shu`ab al-iman, Ibn Asram in Kitab al-istiqama, Ibn Sa`id, and Ibn Abi Shayba in his Musannaf. Abu Hanifa mentions it in his al-Fiqh al-akbar. Ibn Hajar in his Isaba lists its many chains and says that this is a hadith mu`dal (i.e. its chain is missing two or more sub-narrators) and mawsul (or: muttasil; i.e. it is linked back to a Companion through the authority of a Tabi`i.
38Nawawi, Sharh Sahih Muslim Kitab 44 Bab 2 #2398.
39Ibn Hajar, Fath al-Bari (1989 ed.) 7:62-63 #3689.
40Narrated from Anas by Abu Nu`aym, Hilyat al-awliya’ 10:15. Cited in the Commentaries of Suyuti, al-Durr al-manthur (1:372) and Qurtubi (13:364), also by al-Hafiz al-Zabidi in his Ithaf al-sada al-muttaqin 1:403. Shawkani included it in his collection of inauthentic hadiths (al-Fawa’id p. 289), however, al-Qari considers it authentic in his similar collection al-Asrar al-marfu`a p. 325.
41Sha`rani, al-Tabaqat al-kubra (1343/1925) 1:66.
42Pronounced hakEEm. This is not the author of al-Mustadrak `ala al-sahihayn whose name is pronounced hAAkim.
43al-Siraj, al-Luma` p. 422.
44al-Haytami, Fatawa hadithiyya p. 297.
45al-Sakhawi, Tarjimat shaykh al-islam qutb al-awliya Abi Zakariyya al-Nawawi, p. 33.
46Tirmidhi (gharib) from Abu Sa`id al-Khudri, and Tabarani from Abu Imama with a fair (hasan) chain according to al-Haythami in the chapter on firasa of Majma` al-zawa’id.
47Related from Anas with a fair chain by al-Bazzar, Tabarani, Abu Nu`aym in al-Tibb al-nabawi, and from Ibn Sa`id by Bukhari in his Tarikh, al-`Askari in al-Amthal, Ibn Jarir al-Tabari in his Tafsir for 15:75, Ibn Abi Hatim, and Ibn Mardawayh.
48Muslim, Book of Fitan (English vol. 4 p. 1515 #7009).
49Related by al-Biqa`i, Unwan al-zaman p. 92.
50Narrated by Ibn al-Jawzi, Sifat al-safwa (Beirut: Dar al-kutub al-`ilmiyya, 1409/1989) 1(2):271, in the chapter on al-Junayd (#296).
51al-Taftazani, Madkhal ila al-tasawwuf p. 240.
52Quoted in Nabahani, Jami` karamat al-awliya 1:3.
53Quoted in al-Qushayri, Risala (Cairo, 1319 ed.) p. 14, and in Ibn Taymiyya’s Fatawa 11:466.
54Sahih Bukhari, Book of Knowledge (`ilm), Tarjimat al-bab 11 (translation 1:59).
55Ahmad (5:196), Tirmidhi, Darimi, Abu Dawud, Ibn Hibban, Ibn Majah, Bayhaqi in the Shu`ab and others.
56al-Khatib al-Baghdadi, Tarikh Baghdad 13:344.
57Ibn al-Jawzi, Sifat al-Safwa (Beirut, 1989) 1:2:120.
58al-Zahawi, The Doctrine of Ahl al-Sunna, trans. Sh. Hisham Kabbani (Mountain View: ASFA, 1996) p. 51.
59Ibn Taymiyya, al-Furqan bayna awliya’ al-shaytan wa awliya’ al-rahman, 2nd ed. (Beirut: al-maktab al-islami, 1390/1970) p. 52.
60Ibn Taymiyya, al-`Aqida al-wasitiyya (Cairo: al-matba`a al-salafiyya, 1346) p. 33-34.
61Ibn Taymiyya, Mukhtasar al?Fatawa al?Misriyya (al?Madani Publishing House, 1400/1980) p. 603.
62Ibn Taymiyya, Majmu’a al-fatawa al-kubra (1398 ed.) 11:313.
63al-Harawi al-Ansari, Manazil al-Sa’irin, Station 96.
64al-Harawi al-Ansari, `Ilal al-maqamat, Section 11 entitled: Tariq al-khassa (The way of the privileged).
65Ibn al-Jawzi, introduction to his Sifat al-safwa (Beirut ed. 1989/1409) p. 13, 17.
66Ibn al-`Arabi, Tuhfat al-ahwadhi 13:150.
67al-Ghazali, al-Munqidh min al-dalal, Damascus 1956, p. 40.
68al-Haythami, Fatawa hadithiyya, al-Halabi ed. 1970, p. 331.
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