The Khawarij’ Fifteen Sects – Part 2

They also maintain that the “one lured to bewilderment [hairan],” who is mentioned by Allah (Exalted is He) in the Qur’an, is none other than `Ali, along with his party and his companions, “who call him to guidance, [saying]: ‘Come to us!’”

These are the people [who fought against 'Ali (may Allah be well pleased with him) in the battle] of Nahrawan.

12. The Ibadiyya [or Abadiyya]. They maintain that every religious duty which Allah (Exalted is He) has made incumbent upon His creatures must be treated as an article of faith [iman], and that every major sin is an instance of ingratitude for divine blessings [kufr ni'ma], not of polytheistic misbelief [kufr shirk].

13. The Bahnasiyya, historically related to Abu Bahnas, have adopted a doctrine peculiar to themselves, since they maintain a man cannot be considered a Muslim until he knows everything that Allah has made lawful to him, and everything that He has made unlawful to him, specifically and personally.

There are some among the Bahnasiyya who say that if a person commits a sinful offense, he should not be treated as an unbeliever until he has been arraigned before the Sultan, so that the latter may impose upon him the penalty [prescribed by the sacred law for his particular offense], and that only then should he be convicted of unbelief [kufr].

14. The Shimrakhiyya trace the origin of their name to `Abdullah ibn ash-Shimrakh, who declared that the killing of one’s own parents is a lawful act [halal]. At the time when he made this assertion, however, he was under duress or threat of injury [fi dar at-taqiyya], so the Khawarij were able to wash their hands of him.

15. The Bida’iyya. Their doctrines generally coincide with those of the Azariqa. Peculiar to them alone, however, is the assertion that the ritual prayer [salat] should consist of only two cycles [rak`atan] not only in the morning, but also in the evening, on the strength of [their interpretation of] the words of Allah (Exalted is He):And perform the prayer at the two ends of the day and in some watches of the night; surely the good deeds will drive away the evil deeds. (11:114)

They are in agreement with the Azariqa on the permissibility of taking women captives from among the unbelievers [kuffar], and of killing their infant children inadvertently, on the strength of [their interpretation of] the words of Allah (Exalted is He): [And Noah said: "My Lord,] do not leave upon the earth even one of the unbelievers.” (71:26)

All the sects of the Khawarij are in full accord when it comes to holding `Ali guilty of unbelief [kufr] on account of his decision to resort to the appointment of arbitrators [tahkim]. They are also in unanimous agreement on the imputation of unbelief to the perpetrator of a major sin [kufr murtakib kabira], with the exception of the Najadat, who do not subscribe to this doctrine.

copyright Baz Publications

Peace and Blessings upon the Prophet, his Family, and his Companions

© 2012 As-Sunnah Foundation of America

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