4. The Jubba’iyya derive their name from their Shaikh, al-Jubba’i, who violated the Islamic consensus [ijma‘] and broke away from it to formulate several doctrines peculiar to himself.

For one thing, he maintained that human beings are creators of their own actions, a conclusion which no one had arrived at before him. He also used to profess the following eccentric teachings:

That Allah (Exalted is He) is obeying His servants, whenever He does what they wish.If someone takes an oath to the effect that he will give his creditor his due on the following day, and if he qualifies this statement by saying, “if Allah wills [in sha’a’llah],” the qualification gives him no advantage, and he will therefore be guilty of perjury if he does not pay up.If someone steals the value of five dirhams [silver coins], that person is to be classed as a fasiq [an immoral person; one who falls short of the legal standard of rectitude under Islamic law, and is therefore unacceptable as a witness]. This does not apply, however, if the value of what is stolen is less, even by a tiny amount.

5. The Bahshamiyya, trace their origin to Abu Hashim ibn al- Jubba’i. This Abu Hashim used to maintain that it is possible to conceive of the sane adult [mukallaf] as potentially active [qadir], even though he may be neither performing nor refraining from an action, so Allah (Exalted is He) will punish him for his deed [as if he had actually done it].

Abu Hashim also used to maintain that, if a person repents of all his sins but one, his repentance cannot be regarded as valid, not even with respect to the sins of which he has repented.

6. As for the Ka’biyya, they trace their name and origin to a certain Abu’l-Qasim al-Ka’bi, who was a native of Baghdad. He refused to accept that Allah is All-Hearing [Sami ‘], All-Seeing [Basir], and denied that He exercises any will in reality. According to his teaching, the will [irada] of Allah (Exalted is He) in relation to the action of His servants is the commandment [amr] to perform it, and His will in relation to His own action is His knowledge and the absence of constraint.

Abu’l-Qasim al-Ka’bi also maintained that the entire universe is a composite whole [mala‘]; that anything that moves is no more than the first layer of the physical bodies; that the human being, even if he were greased with oil and seemed to move along, would not be what was actually in motion, since it would only be the oil that was moving.

He used to profess the doctrine that the Qur’an is muhdath [produced, originated–and therefore not existing from all eternity], but he did not refer to it as makhluq [created].


©Baz Publications

Peace and Blessings upon the Prophet, his Family, and his Companions

© 2012 As-Sunnah Foundation of America

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