Close to the end of his life Ameer Muawiyyah bin Abu Sufyaan (RA-Radiallahu `Anhu – May Allah be pleased with him) decided to appoint his son Yazid as khalifa of the Muslims, this was an unprecedented act in the history of Islam. No ruler had prior to this appointed his son or family as successor. Several of the Sahaba (RA) were dissatisfied with this deviation from the standard established by The Meseenger of Allah (Sallalahu `Alaihi wasallam) and his righteous guided Khulafa.
Of the Sahaba (RA) present at that time `Abdullah bin Umar, `Abdullah bin `Abbas and `Abdur Rahmaan bin Abu Bakr (RA) opted to accept the reign of Yazid to avoid further bloodshed in the Muslim Ummah. They did not want to see the repeat of conflicts of Siffin and Jamal, which cost many Muslim lives and threw the Ummah into turmoil. `Abdullah bin Zubair (RA) took refuge in Makkah and he remained the ruler of Hijaaz (Makkah, Medina and surrounding areas) for a further ten years.
The other objector to Yazid becoming the Khalifa was Husain (RA) the youngest son of Hazrat `Ali (RA) and Hazrat Fatima (RA). Based on his understanding of the tenets of Islam he understood this to be a deviation from the path of his grandfather, Rasulallah (Sallalahu `Alaihi wasallam). Husain (RA) escaped from Medina to Makkah when the pressures of the governor, Waleed bin `Utba, intensified his efforts to compel Husain (RA) to accept Yazid as the Khalifa of the Muslim Ummah.
While in Makkah, he began receiving letters of support from Kufa – encouraging him to come to Kufa where he will find many supporters who will help him oppose Yazid. When the number of letters of support exceeded 10’000, Husain (RA) considered going to Kufa, despite the objections of the other Sahaba (RA). He sent his cousin, Muslim bin `Aqeel to investigate the situation. `Abdullah bin `Abbas and `Abdullah bin `Umar (RA) tried in vain to dissuade Husain (RA) from leaving the sanctuary of Makkah and going to Kufa. Realising that he would not heed their advice, they tried to convince him to leave his family in Makkah and make the journey with a few of his companions. But Husain (RA) had committed himself to opposing this deviation from the Path of Islam; and was prepared to sacrifice his life and the lives of his family to ensure that the Sunnah (Path of Nabi Sallalahu `Alaihi wasallam) is not altered. Shariah had established the rules for Mashwera (Mutual consultation).
When the cousin of Hazrat Husain (RA), Muslim bin Aqeel arrived in Kufa he found tremendous support for Husain. Nearly 15’000 supporters gathered to pray with him demonstrating their backing of Husain (RA). Encouraged by this situation, Muslim bin `Aqeel wrote back saying the situation was favourable and that Husain (RA) should come to Kufa. But the situation quickly deteriorated when the new governor of Kufa, `Ubayd-Allah bin Ziyad took power and began persecuting the supporters of Husain eventually killing Muslim bin `Aqeel on 9 Dhul-Haijjah 60AH (680 AD) without any resistance from the people of Kufa.
Husain (RA) departed for the 1100km long journey on the 8th Dhul-Hijjah to avoid any conflict in the holy city during Hajj. En-route he heard of the murder of his cousin, Muslim bin `Aqeel and of his supporters deserting his cause, but decided to continue to Kufa saying these famous words:
“… The death is a certainty for mankind, just like the trace of necklace on the neck of young girls. And I am enamored of my ancestors like eagerness of Ya`qoob to Yusuf (AS)… Everyone, who is going to devote his blood for our sake and is prepared to meet Allah, must depart with us…” (Lohouf, By Sayyid ibn Tawoos, Tradition No.72)
Two days outside of Kufa Husain’s group were stopped by the vanguard of Yazid’s army – Hurr bin Riyahi, who refused him to continue his journey to Kufa. Husain requested to return to Medina, but that too, was denied. Forced by the army of Hurr, Husain (RA) and his supporters camped in the barren, dry area of Karbala on the 2nd Muharram. The governor of Kufa, `Ubayd-Allah bin Ziyad ordered Umar bin Sa’ad to lead the army of 5’000 strong against Husain with instructions to initiate the battle on the 6th of Muharram. With further instructions to prevent Husain from access to water despite the close proximity of the mighty Euphrates river.
On the afternoon of the 9th the army of ibn Sa`ad began advancing to attack – Husain (RA) requested them to delay for one day. That night he spent in prayer and devotion; at Fajr he gathered his men and informed them that they faced certain death and if anyone wished to leave they were free to do so. All his supporters, 32 horsemen and 40 foot-soldiers, emphatically opted to stay by his side. Hearing Husain’s emotional call to defend the family of the Prophet (s), Hurr Al- Riyahi, the commander of one of the enemy battalions left the ranks of Yazid’s army and joined the small group of Husain.
Fearing that more people may defect to Husain Umar bin Sa`ad, commander of the army started the battle by firing an arrow saying: “Give evidence before the governor that I was the first thrower.” The army attacked with ferocity but were repulsed by the courage of Husain bin `Ali (RA) followers. Despite being charged at by infantrymen these brave soldiers of Allah Ta’ala stood their ground and defended the family of the Prophet (s).
Husain’s (RA) followers came to bid farewell to him as they plunged into the battle, sacrificing their lives in defense of the grandson of the Master, the Prophet (s). `Abbas bin `Ali (RA) the half-brother of Husain (RA) could not tolerate the suffering of the women and children who had been without water for several days. Penetrating the enemy forces he reached the river and began filling water skins. Laden with water skins and hopelessly outnumbered he made his way back to the camp. The enemy surrounded him determined not to let this brave warrior of Islam succeed in getting water to the camp. Before he died, `Abbas called out to his brother Husain (RA) asking forgiveness that he could not bring the water.
As the day drew to a close, only Husain (RA) remained from the men. Few of the enemy dared attack him, some out of the dread of attacking the grandson of the Prophet (Sallalahu `Alaihi wasallam) others from the fear of his ferocity. Umar bin Sa`ad, commander of Yazid’s forces ordered his men to murder the noble grandson – most were reluctant then Shimr ibn Dhiljawshan advanced to slit the throat of Husain (RA). He severed the head of this noble leader of Islam and placed it on a spear. History will always mark this day – 10th of Muharram 60AH (680AD) as the day the noble grandson of the Master Muhammad (Sallalahu `Alaihi wasallam) gave his life in defense of the established Path of Islam. He would tolerate no deviation from the Shariah (Islamic legal code) or Sunnah. Leaving this world at the age of 57 he became the” Leader of the Youth of Jannah” (Paradise).
Umar bin Sa`ad ordered his men to gather all the women and children, and to set fire to the tents. The next morning the captives from the family of the Prophet (s) were marched to Kufa and then to Damascus. In the court of Yazid bin Mu`awiyyah the heads were displayed and the prisoners were paraded. Zaynab bint `Ali (RA) fearlessly condemned Yazid for his actions and eulogised Hazrat Husain (RA).
This is a mere recording of events from authentic Sunni sources. Allah is the Best Judge. Allah Ta`ala makes it clear:
“That was a people that hath passed away. They shall reap the fruit of what they did, and ye of what ye do! Of their merits there is no question in your case”(Qur’an-Surat al-Baqarah 2:141 and 2:134)
But it leaves us with the profound question: How much are we willing to sacrifice in the defense of Faith, Truth and the laws of Islam. If each of us were willing to make the sacrifice of Hazrat Husain (RA) then there would be no deviation from the True Path. The call is not only to give up our lives in preserving our religion, but to give up our desires in fulfilling the Orders of Allah Ta`ala.
© 2012 As-Sunnah Foundation of America