Shah Bahauddin Naqshband

Shaykh Gibril Fouad Haddad

Adapted from al-Khani’s al-Bahja al-Saniyya

[This text is intended for Sufi students only]

Some qualities of the Way’s Imaam, the Rescue (Ghawth) of creation (in his age), the Godly Scholar, Temple of The Eternally Besought (Samad), Allah’s Argument over Gnostics and His Gift to the worlds, the reviver of the Master of Prophets’ Sunnah, refuge of the poor and needy (to Allah), source of the Siddeeqi secrets (pertaining to Abu Bakr al Siddeeq Radia’l Laahu `Anhu), center of Bistaami sciences, whose beginning is the end and whose end has no limit, Bahaa’u l-Haqq Wa’l Haqeeqah Wa’d Deen1, known as Shaah Naqshband, al Shaikh Muhammad al ‘Uwaysi al Bukhaari, may Allah Sanctify his innermost (soul) and Pour upon us and those treading (the Way) his spiritual abundance (fayd) and righteousness.

(Summarizing) from “Al Rashahaat2:

< His birth was in Muharram of the year 718 (Hijri) in the age of Khaajah `Ali al Raamitani, may Allah Mercy and Good-Pleasure be upon him, viewing that Khaajah `Ali’s decease was in the months of the year 721 (Hijri). His birth and decease was in Qasru’l `Aarifeen, a village one league (3 1/4 miles) away from Bukhaara. The traces of wilaayah3 and the lights of karaamah4 were apparent on his forehead since his childhood. His mother was reported to have said:

<<My son Bahaa’u d-Deen said, and he was four years old, {This cow will give birth to a calf, and its forehead will be white}, and after some months the cow gave birth as he said.>>

The Khaajah (Bahaa’u d-Deen) was among the accepted circle of Khaajah Muhammad al Baaba Sammaasi as previously mentioned (in “Al Rashahaat“), teaching of the manners of the Way to him was externally by al Ameer Kulaal but in reality he was ‘Uwaysi5, taught by the spirituality of Khaajah `Abdu’l Khaaliq al Ghujdawaani. And know that from the age of Khaajah Mahmood al Injeeri al Faghnawi quddisa sirruh till the age of al Ameer Kulaal quddisa sirruh, they used to gather for zhikr vocally (i.e. audible, not internal zhikr). When Khaajah Naqsh Band came, he quit the loud zhikr and chose the secret one because he was ordered by the spirituality of Khaajah `Abdu’l Khaaliq al Ghujdawaani to act according to `azeemah (firmness in religion) and avoid the rukhsah. So he avoided vocal zhikr to the point of going out from Ameer Kulaal’s session during the circle’s gathering for zhikr. This used to weigh heavy on his companions who would get jealous of him, but the Khaajah would not pay attention to them nor attempt to fix their (troubled) minds, yet he would not falter the least bit in serving or respecting the Ameer, and was submissive and compliant to his orders. As for the Ameer, he was attentive to him, his attention increasing daily. So (one day) several of his companions entered his seclusion and, out of envy, attributed some shortcoming to him (Khaajah Bahaa’u d-Deen). Al Ameer Kulaal answered nothing until his minor and eminent companions (about five hundred persons, as mentioned in “Al Rashahaat“) gathered one day to build a masjid. After finishing the building work they all gathered by the Ameer. He then turned toward those who had bad opinions of Khaajah Bahaa’u d-Deen and used to attribute shortcoming to him in the Ameer’s (presence) and told them:

<<You think this and this about Khaajah Bahaa’u d-Deen. All this thinking is erroneous and incorrect: Allah Ta`aala Has Accepted him but you did not know it, and my care and attention are (but) subsequent to His Acceptance, Most Eminent (is He).>>

After these words, he asked for Khaajah Bahaa’u d-Deen who was carrying brick for the building. When he came he turned to him and said:

<<My son, I have performed the will of Khaajah Muhammad Baaba al Sammaasi concerning you>>

he pointed to his breasts and said:

<<My breasts have dried in bringing you up, but your aptitude is high and strong. So I have permitted you to go in the Kingdom: If you find shaikhs, ask them (spiritual education) according to your aptitude.>>

Khaajah Naqshband said, may Allah Ta`aala’s Mercy be upon him:

<<These words from the Ameer were the cause for my trial (for, was I in the normal relationship of following to my shaikh, I would have been farther from trial and nearer to safety6).>>

Then the Khaajah accompanied Mawlaana `Aarif for seven years, then Qatham Shaikh, then Khaleel Ataa for twelve years. Then he traveled twice to Hijaaz7, accompanied by Khaajah Muhammad Paarsa in the second journey. When they arrived to Khuraasaan, he sent Khaajah Muhammad Paarsa with the rest of his companions via Baaward to Naysaabur and headed toward Haraah to meet Mawlaana Zaynu’d Deen Abu Bakr al Taaybaadi and accompanied him for three days in Taaybaad. Then he headed toward Hijaaz (for Hajj), rejoined his companions in Naysaabur, settled a while in Marv after returning from Hajj, then came to Bukhaara and lived there the rest of his life. In his death bed Ameer Kulaal directed all his companions to follow Khaajah Naqshband may Allah Ta`aala Have Mercy on him. They told him:

<<Khaajah Naqshband does not mention (Allah) by the vocal zhikr, so how can we follow him!>>

He said:

<<there is wisdom in all that Allah Ta`aala Gave him, so do not disobey him.>>

Al Shaikh Ahmad Ibn `Illaan said in his “Maqaamaat“:

<<Hadrat Khaajah `Alaa’u d-Deen al `Attaar quddisa sirruh reported that the Khaajah (Naqshband) used to say:

<<Among Allah Ta`aala‘s special care of me is that I was honored in my childhood days with the (attentive and blessed) “look” of Hadrat the great Shaikh Khaajah Baaba Sammaasi, may Allah Sanctify his soul, and that he accepted me to be a “son” of his.>>

And he reported from Hadrat al Khaajah’s grand father that:

< When three days passed after the birth of my (grand) son Bahaa’u d-Deen, Hadrat Khaajah Baaba al Sammaasi quddisa sirruh arrived with a group of his companions to the Palace of Hindawaan. I had a complete loving and iraadah (“will” – to follow -) for his Eminence, and those who loved him where very numerous in that place. It crossed my mind to take this son of mine to him, so I placed on his chest some nazhr (dedication to Allah) and took him with total supplication and humility, upon which he said, may Allah Be Well-Pleased with him

<<this is my son, and I have accepted him>>

then he turned his face toward the companions and said to Hadrat al Sayyid Kulaal quddisa sirruh, who was in that session:

<<How many a time when I reached this place did I tell you that this fragrance has increased, and it is as if that child has been born, for the fragrance is coming stronger; this child is that person, and I hope he will be (an object of) following to the world.>>

It was also related from Hadrat Khaajah `Alaa’u d-Deen … that during the “administration” of Hadrat al Khaajah (Bahaa’u d-Deen) quddisa sirruh, one of Hadrat al Khaajah Muhammad Baaba Sammaasi’s companions was once in the Hindawaan Palace and used to say that before the birth of Hadrat al Khaajah Bahaa’u d-Deen quddisa sirruh, Hadrat al Khaajah Baaba used to come often to the Hindawaan Palace and mention in his company’s sessions that Qasru’l Hindawaan (the Hindawaan Palace) would soon become Qasru’l `Aarifeen (The Palace of Gnostics), and praise be to Allah, Hadrat al Khaajah Baaba’s blessed (intuitive) breath has appeared in this age.

And they related that Khaajah `Alaa’u d-Deen quddisa sirruh quoted Hadrat al Khaajah (Bahaa’u d-Deen) quddisa sirruh8:

< I was eighteen years old or more, and my grand father, Mercy be upon him, … sent me to Hadrat the great shaikh Khaajah Baaba Sammaasi in Sammaas upon his request. I reached this noble spot and got the honor of meeting him. I stayed in his company and by his barakah, when sunset arrived I had already found in myself complete supplication and humility (to Allah). I woke up at the end of the night, performed wudu‘, and entered that masjid where his group was. I prayed two rak`ats, kept my head during the prostration and supplicated and implore a lot. It passed over my tongue then:

<<my Lord, give me the strength of bearing affliction and of bearing the test of loving ones>>

So when I got in the morning by Hadrat al Khaajah Baaba quddisa sirruh, he turned toward me (after the morning prayer), informed my by scrutiny what occurred from me and told me

<<My son, you must say during supplication “My Lord, whatever has Your Good-Pleasure, Give it to this weak subject”. For Allah’s Good-Pleasure is that His subject not to be in affliction; and if by His wisdom He sends affliction to His beloved one, He then Gives him the strength to bear it, and Acquaints him with His Wisdom therein. So the subject should not choose affliction as it is against good manners.>>

After that, the (dining) sheet was placed, and when they ate he gave me a loaf therefrom which I internally resisted taking, so he told me

<<take it, for it will be of use to you>>

So I took that loaf and went with his procession in the road of Qasru’l `Aarifeen. In that road I was walking behind his donkey in complete sincerity (to Allah), but sometimes (my) thought would go according to the whims of the senses, and each time this dissipation would occur to me, he would turn to me and tell me:

<<the thought must be guarded>>

From witnessing theses states, I was achieving complete certainty, and my loving was increasing for his eminence. In that road, we reached a place where there lived one among those attached to the Khaajah and went to his house. He met him with complete cheerfulness, supplication and humility, but when Hadrat al Khaajah Baaba entered the house, the person got disturbed, so the Khaajah said:

<<What’s the reality? speak the truth.>>

This loving person said:

<<The reality is that I have milk available but have no bread.>>

The Khaajah turned to me and said:

<<Get (us) this loaf, it has finally been of use.>>

To and fro, I used to witness this and similar (happenings), and my love and belief in him increased, quddisa sirruh.

Khaajah `Alaa’u d-Deen quddisa sirruh was reported, quoting Hadrat al Khaajah’s words (Bahaa’u d-Deen), quddisa sirruh9:

<< When Khaajah Muhammad (Baaba Sammaasi) died, may Allah Fill his grave with light, my grand father took me to Samarqand. He used to take me each place there was a righteous person “with a heart” and ask him to pray for me, and their barakah (blessing granted by Allah) was reaching me. Then he brought me to Bukhaara and completed my marriage there while I was residing in the Qasru’l `Aarifeen. In that period, by Divine Grace, I got the cap of Hadrat al `Azeezaan (`Ali al Raamatani) whereupon my state improved and my expectations became strong until I was honored with the arrival of Hadrat al Sayyid Kulaal quddisa sirruh who told me:

<<Hadrat al Khaajah Muhammad Baaba committed to my care “do not spare an effort in educating my son Bahaa’u d-Deen nor in caring after him, and you are not absolved from me if you are negligent in this”>>

Hadrat al Sayyid Kulaal said:

<<I am no man if I am negligent about Hadrat al Khaajah’s will.>>

It was reported, quoting Hadrat al Khaajah (Bahaa’u d-Deen) quddisa sirruh10: < In these days I saw (in a dream) Al Hakeem Ataa, may Allah Sanctify his soul, who was among the greatest shaikhs of Turkey, advising a righteous man (dervish) to take care of me, and when I woke up that man’s image was on my mind. I had a righteous grandmother to whom I mentioned that dream; she said:

<<My son, you will have a share from the shaikhs of Turkey.>>

Thus I kept looking forward to meet this righteous man until I found him one day in Bukhaara and recognized him. His name was Khaleel, but I was unable then to stay with him and went home worried. At sunset a person came and told me:

<<Dervish Khaleel is asking for you.>>

I promptly took a visiting gift and went to him in complete supplication and humility. When I got the honor of meeting him, I was about to tell him of my dream but he said in Turkish:

<<I know what you saw, so there is no need to clarify.>>

From hearing his words I was greatly affected and got extremely attracted to him, and (after that) I kept on achieving great states from his company. It even happened that people beyond the river appointed him Sultaan – whereupon he was known as Sultaan Khaleel – yet I did not leave him but used to see great states from him during his reign, and my heart got more and more attached to him; in turn his education, promotion and tenderness to me would increase. He taught me numerous manners of servitude which helped me tremendously in the knowledge of the manners of this Way’s walking and treading. I thus remained at his service during the six years of his reign. In public I observed the manners of serving him, and in private I honored his special companions, and he often used to say in presence of his select companions:

<<Everyone who serves me for the sake of Allah’s Good-Pleasure will become great among creatures>>

and I knew what he intended by these words and who he intended. He was pointing to me that respecting and dignifying Kings should not be for their outward sumptuousness and greatness, but they must be dignified because they are a manifestation of The Majesty of The True Possessor of all Kingdom. After a while, his kingdom ended. In an instant this reign, this esteem and these servants vanished, and my heart got but further disinterested from this earthly life and its endeavors, so I returned to Bukhaara and resided in the village of Ziyurtoon. >

Khaajah `Alaa’u d-Deen al `Attaar reported, may Allah Perfume his grave, quoting the words of the blessed Khaajah, may Allah Sanctify his soul:

<<My waking, coming to attention, repentance and turning toward Allah started when I was alone with a person I liked, talking and leaning in my heart toward that person11. A voice then came to my hearing: “Isn’t it time that you leave everything and direct your face toward Our Presence!” A great state happened to me because of that voice and I left that house restless. There was water nearby, so I washed myself and my clothes, and in that state of humility I prayed two rak`ats. For years since that prayer I have hoped to achieve a similar one but have not been able to. >

Khaajah `Alaa’u d-Deen al `Attaar was reported, quoting him (Khaajah Bahaa’u d-Deen):

< I was told at the beginning of the jazhbah (Divine Attraction):

<<How would you enter this Way?>>

I answered:

<<That all I say and want, will be.>>

The address reached me:

<<All that We say is to be done.>>

I said:

<<I have no power to bear this. If all that I say will happen, it is possible for me to set my foot in this Way; if it is not so, I have no power to.>>

This question and answer repeated twice. Then I was left by myself for fifteen days, and my states ruined and I got in great despair. After that despair, the address came:

<<What you want will be.>>

In some narrations Hadrat al Khaajah (Bahaa’u d-Deen) then said:

<<I want a Way, whoever enters it will be honored with the level of arrival>>

and therein is great tiding to whoever holds on to his Way. (Khaajah Bahaa’u d-Deen related his words – internal and therefore not needing explanations – during this extremely concise dialogue, and some readers may miss his supplicating tone thus misunderstanding the dialogue. First it must be noted that the Way – per se – is obviously outside the realm of formal Islamic obligations, thus he had the choice not to enter it. Furthermore, during his attempt for intercession, Khaajah Bahaa’u d-Deen was admitting, with total supplication and humility, his inability to bear a heavy burden. He was asked to state his request, which he did. When the answer came back to him, not showing the acceptance of his intercession, he simply stated his inability to bear such a refusal – provided he thus entered the Way, which again is but optional. Finally, it must be noted that he said “I have no power…” and did not say, for example, “I refuse…”, which is both subtle and important.)

The Khaajah (Bahaa’u d-Deen) quddisa sirruh was reported saying12:

<< During the initial states, when yearning and jazhbah (Divine Attraction) where overpowering, I was restless and used to roam at night around Bukhaara and visit all cemeteries’ memorials. One night I visited three among the blessed graves. By each I found a lit candle with plenty of grease and a wick, but the wick needed to be stirred slightly for the grease to come out so its light would rejuvenate and not go off. Thus at the beginning of the night I visited the memorial grave of Khaajah Muhammad Ibn Waasi` quddisa sirruh (and found the candle which wick needed to be stirred) and the sign occurred to go to Khaajah Ahmad Jughraywi’s memorial. When I reached it (it had a similarly lit candle and soon) two men came, tied two swords around my waist, mounted me on a donkey, turned its rein toward Mizdaakhan’s memorial and walked it there. When we reached it at the end of that night, I saw another candle like the previous two. I sat, facing the Qiblah and while I was there a ghaybah (loss of normal consciousness) occurred to me. In that ghaybah I saw the wall on the Qiblah’s side split, and a huge buttress appeared with a sumptuous man on top of it, a veil deployed ahead of him. Around the buttress was a group of people with Khaajah Muhammad Baaba Sammaasi among them. … As I wondered internally:

<<who was that great man and that group?>>

one of them told me:

<<This great man is Hadrat al Khaajah `Abdu’l Khaaliq al Ghujdawaani, and these people are his successors>>

and he named them, pointing to each:

<<Khaajah Ahmad al Siddeeq, Khaajah Awliyaa’ al Kabeer, Khaajah `Aarif al Rayogari, Khaajah Mahmood Injeeri al Faghnawi, Khaajah `Ali al Raamitani>>

may Allah Sanctify their innermost souls. When he reached Khaajah Muhammad Baaba Sammaasi he pointed at him and said:

<<and this one, you have met during his lifetime, he is your shaikh and he gave you a cap. Do you know him?>>

I said yes I know him. But it was a long time since the story of the cap and I had forgotten about it, so he said:

<<This cap is in your house and by its barakah Allah Lifted a great affliction that had befallen you.>>

Then that group told me:

<<Give your ear and hear well, for the Great Khaajah, may Allah Sanctify his soul, wants to say something you cannot do without, in treading the Way of Allah.>>

I requested them to let me salute Hadrat al Khaajah, so they removed that veil and I saluted him. Then he explained and mentioned details about the beginning of sulook, its middle and its end, then he said:

<<These candles you thus saw were good tiding for you, and a sign that you have a complete aptitude and potential for this Way, but you must stir the wick of aptitude for the lights to get stronger and the secrets to show out, so work according to your aptitude and you will achieve your goal.>>

He also mentioned, emphasized and incited:

<<In all your conditions, you must maintain your step within the avenue of Sharee`ah, rectitude, enjoining good and prohibiting evil; adopt `azeemah (firmer regulation) and avoid rukhsah (leaner regulation) and bid`ah (innovation); always keep ahead of you the hadeeths of al Mustafa (Muhammad) Salla’l Laahu `Alaihi Wa Sallam, and examine his reports and sayings and those of the noble Companions.>>

When this was over, the Khaajah’s khaleefah (successor) told me:

<<And the testimony to the truthfulness of this vision is for you to go tomorrow to Mawlaana Shamsu’d Deen al Anbeekuti and say that “so and so, the Turk, is claiming against al Saqqa”, that “the Turk is right and you are siding with al Saqqa”. If al Saqqa (“the drink-tender”) denies the correctness of this claim, tell him “I have two witnesses. The first is that O Saqqa (drink-tender), you are thirsty” and he will know the meaning of these words, “the second witness is that you sinned with a woman, and when the effect of that sin showed, you aborted it and buried it at such and such location under a vine”.>>

Then he said:

<<The next morning after you convey this message to Mawlaana Shamsu’d Deen, you must take three raisins, head to Nasaf by a road – which he designated -, and go to the service of al Sayyid Kulaal. When you reach a place – which he designated along the way – you will meet an old man who will give you a warm loaf. Take this loaf and do not speak to him. After you pass him you will meet a caravan. After you pass this caravan a rider will meet you, you will counsel him, and his repentance will be through you. And take with you al `Azeezaan’s cap to Sayyid Kulaal.>>

Then that group moved me and I regained (normal) consciousness. That morning I hurried to my house in Ziyurtoon and asked my family about the cap. They said:

<<it had been there for quite some time>>

When I saw the `Azeezaan’s cap an unusual state overcame me and I cried a lot then headed immediately to Anbeekutah. I performed the morning prayer in Mawlaana Shamsu’d Deen’s masjid. After the prayer, I stood up and said:

<<I am ordered to convey a message.>>

and mentioned the story to Mawlaana. He got confused, and al Saqqa, who was present, denied the legitimacy of the Turk’s claim. I told al Saqqa:

<<One of my witnesses is that you are a thirsty Saqqa (“drink-tender”), having no share from the meaning (of your name)>>

at which he remained silent,

<<and my second witness is that you sinned with a woman and ordered the abortion of that sin’s result and buried it under a vine in such and such place>>.

Al Saqqa denied, and the masjid’s group went to that place, searched and found a buried fetus there. Al Saqqa started apologizing and Mawlaana and the masjid’s group wept and a great condition overcame them.  Next day at sunrise I headed toward Nasaf from that specific road as instructed in the happening, taking three raisins in my hand. Mawlaana was informed about my departure so he asked for me, treated me very kindly and said:

<<The pain of seeking has overcome you and has affected you. Your cure is with us; settle here so we fulfill the duty of educating you in order to make you reach your ultimate goal according to your high determination.>>

I found myself answering:

<<I am the son of other than you. If you put the breast of education in my mouth, I do not want it and will bite it.>>

Mawlaana did not respond and permitted me to travel. At the start of that day I wore a band around my waist and to secure it well, I told two persons to pull on its ends. I took the route and when I reached the specified place I found an old man – who was al Khadir, as I (later) heard from my father. He gave me a warm loaf which I took without speaking to him. As I went on I reached a caravan. Its people asked me:

<<Where did you come from?>>

I said:

<<From Anbeekutah.>>

They said:

<<What time did you leave it?>>

I said:

<<At sunrise>>

Having reached them in the Raamitani (morning) time, they got astonished and said:

<<There are four “leagues” (about 23 miles13) from that village, and we left there at night’s beginning!>>

When I passed them, a rider met me. I saluted him when I reached him. He said:

<<I am afraid of you, who are you?>>

I told him

<<I am that person on whose hands you will repent.>>

He dismounted immediately, showed complete humility and supplication and repented. He had loads of wine with him which he all poured away. After I passed him I entered Nasaf and went to Sayyid Kulaal quddisa sirruh. When I had the honor of seeing him I placed al `Azeezaan’s cap in front of him. He remained quiet for a long while then said:

<<This is al `Azeezaan’s cap.>>

I said yes. He said:

<<It has been prescribed that you guard this cap inside ten covers.>>

I took the cap and did as I was told. After that, al Sayyid taught me secret zhikr by “denial and affirmation14” and told me to work on that. I complied with that and, because I was ordered in that happening to follow `azeemah (firmness), I did not perform the public (vocal) zhikr. >

The Khaajah (Bahaa’u d-Deen) quddisa sirruh was reported saying15:

<<After that happening, everything that Hadrat al Khaajah (`Abdu’l Khaaliq al Ghujdawaani) mentioned occurred to me; and I witnessed the result of each subject in its own time. And as I was ordered to examine the reports of The Messenger Salla’l Laahu `Alaihi Wa Sallam and the sayings of the noble Companions Radia’l Laahu `Anhum, I kept close to scholars, read Hadeeths, and learned the reports of the Companions, and I used to act according to all of that and witness its result in me by the nurturing care of Allah Ta`aala.>>

The Khaajah (Bahaa’u d-Deen) quddisa sirruh was reported saying:

<<In the beginning of my jazhbah16 state, I was near Mizdaakhan’s memorial with Darweesh Muhammad al Zaahid who was leaning. My spirit left my body and went to the end of heaven. In that condition it reached the first heaven, and from there (it reached) the second, the third and the fourth, then it returned to earth and entered my body while Muhammad al Zaahid had no news about those states.>>

Khaajah `Alaa’u d-Deen (al `Attaar) quddisa sirruh was reported, quoting Hadrat al Khaajah (Bahaa’u d-Deen) quddisa sirruh:

<<One night, in the initial states, I was in Ziyurtoon’s Masjid near a column facing the Qiblah in tawajjuh (turning toward Allah). The effect of annihilation’s ghaybah17 started to appear, and it overcame me little by little until I got effaced from my own (consciousness). In that state of effacement and total annihilation they told me: Awaken, for you have achieved the goal and quest and have arrived to that. After a while they returned me from that state to my existence.>>

Khaajah `Alaa’u d-Deen al `Attaar reported, may Allah Illuminate his memorial, quoting the words of Hadrat al Khaajah (Bahaa’u d-Deen), may Allah Sanctify his blessed innermost (soul):

<<In the initial states after the episode of Ziyurtoon, I was in that field>>

he pointed to the field which is now his memorial,

<<with a group of those attached to me. The traces of Divine Attractions and of the Kindness of Lordly `Inaayah (Nurturing Care) appeared in me. I became restless and anxious and was unable to work at ease. So I stood up restlessly and sat facing the Qiblah. In that tawajjuh (turning toward Allah) a ghaybah (loss of normal consciousness) occurred to me. This ghaybah connected to real fanaa‘ (annihilation) and I was brought to true fanaa’ fi’l Laah (annihilation in Allah). In that fanaa‘ I saw that I was in the image of a star in an endless ocean of light and that I was effaced therein. No trace of apparent life remained in my body, and my parents and those attached to me where crying and in confusion, until my “humanity” was returned to me little by little. This ghaybah and total fanaa‘ where for about six astronomical hours18.>>

It was reported that in his latest (periods) Hadrat al Khaajah used to tell about the initial state of his sulook and his turning19  toward the virtuous spiritualities among shaikhs of Tareeqah (the Way) and great ones of Haqeeqah (reality) may Allah Sanctify their souls, and used to clarify the effect of turning toward the spirituality of each among them. He said:

<<Turning20 toward the spirituality of ‘Uways al Qarani, may Allah Be Well-Pleased with him, has a complete effect toward entire disengagement and total shedding of external and internal bonds. And if you turn toward the spirituality of al Imaam Muhammad Ibn `Ali al Hakeem al Tirmizhi may Allah Sanctify his soul, you will find sheer attribute effacement to result from this viewing, and in this oblivion, no trace can be seen nor dust. Khaajah Salaah who compiled these virtues (of Shaah Naqshband) said, may Allah Be Well-Pleased with him: When I was in the presence of Hadrat al Khaajah quddisa sirruh in the year 789 (Hijri), he used to say:

<<I have been following the way of Khaajah Muhammad Ibn `Ali al Hakeem al Tirmizhi, may Allah Sanctify his soul, for twenty two years: He was with no attribute, and I am also with no attribute now.>>

Salaah related that:

<< In the beginning states of Hadrat al Khaajah (Naqshband) quddisa sirruh, he used to have some (spiritual) training, and occasionally this disciple used to reach his noble company. One winter when it was extremely cold, Hadrat al Khaajah (Bahaa’u d-Deen) arrived to my house at dawn with the traces of (spiritual) training, detachment and total disengagement showing on him and said:

<<For eight months I have been turning toward the spirituality of ‘Uways al Qarani, may Allah Be Well-Pleased with him and treading (the Way) with his attribute, and just now I got out from his attribute.>>

Hadrat al Khaajah `Alaa’u d-Deen al `Attaar, may Allah Perfume his abode that Hadrat al Khaajah (Bahaa’u d-Deen) quddisa sirruh often used to say concerning effort, humility, modesty and high determination of those traversing the Way:

<<They made me enter from that door, and all I got, I got from there.>>

Hadrat al Khaajah (Bahaa’u d-Deen) quddisa sirruh was reported saying:

<< One night I was walking in Ziyurtoon. When I reached a mound an extraordinary state overcame me and an inspiration occurred in my heart:

<<Ask of Our Presence what you want>>

I said out of humility and modesty:

<<My Lord, Give me an atom from the oceans of Your Mercy and Nurturing Care>>

and the inspiration reached me

<<From the Generosity of Our Presence you are asking for an atom!>>

A different state overcame me and the (challenge) of high determination stirred in me, so with all my power I slapped my face with my hand – such that the traces of that slap remained for several days. I said after that

<<O most Generous, Give me the oceans of Mercy and Nurturing Care, and Grant me the power to bear them>>

The traces of Nurturing Care and Bestowing appeared immediately, and from the blessings of that (happening) I (later) saw what I saw. > And he recited a Persian verse meaning that determination takes you to the balconies of greatness, you can not seek for that level better than that ladder.

Khaajah `Alaa’u d-Deen, may Allah Purify his grave reported that Hadrat al Khaajah (Bahaa’u d-Deen) quddisa sirruh said concerning his beginning:

<<We were two hundred persons who set foot in the Way, and my determination was to surpass all. Allah’s Nurturing Care reached me, made me bypass all, and brought me to the goal.>>

Khaajah `Alaa’u d-Deen, may Allah Purify his abode reported that Hadrat al Khaajah (Bahaa’u d-Deen) quddisa sirruh said:

<<In this Way, denying existence21 and not “seeing” the Self (nafs) is the capital asset of fortunate arrival and acceptance; in this process I have compared myself to every level of beings and found each to be better than me in reality until I got to the level of waste and found benefit there but found no benefit in my Self22  (nafs). Then I got to the dog’s waste and said it cannot have a benefit and affirmed that in myself but I learned in the end that it too has a benefit and ascertained there is fundamentally no benefit in me.>>

Khaajah `Alaa’u d-Deen, may Allah Perfume his (memorial’s) garden, reported about Hadrat al Khaajah (Bahaa’u d-Deen) quddisa sirruh that, out of his complete kindness and nurturing care (inaayah) for those treading the Way, he used to teach them high determination and say:

<<I do not absolve you but that your determination in seeking the goal be such as to step over my head and pass (me) by.>>

Khaajah Salaah, author of “Al Jam`” said concerning Hadrat al Khaajah’s words, quddisa sirruh:

<<This is an allusion that in all phases, externally and internally, the shaikh is the mureed‘s ascension, thus the mureed‘s rise from every state and attribute is through the shaikh’s uplifting and his outward and inward kindness because his determination is turned (to Allah) for the mureed to ride on the buraaq of determination and rise thereby from the lowness of human-hood to the peak terrains of angel-hood. The Prophet Salla’l Laahu `Alaihi Wa Sallam ordered `Ali Radia’l Laahu `Anhu to place his foot over his blessed shoulder to throw down the idol from the Ka`bah’s wall, and there is an allusion there to that meaning.>>

A learned person devoted to Hadrat al Khaajah (Bahaa’u d-Deen) quddisa sirruh said:

<<When I was seeking knowledge, I was one evening in Bukhaara and saw a person among the Khaajah’s companions. He told me

<<Why didn’t you hurry to Hadrat al Khaajah (Bahaa’u d-Deen)?>>

I apologized to him that the day had passed, and it passed through my mind that

<<going to Hadrat al Khaajah needs an independent intention and moreover, how could I soil his noble majlis (gathering) with my thick presence!>>

So I headed home and went to Hadrat al Khaajah in the morning. When I was honored with meeting him, Hadrat al Khaajah turned to some of his companions and said:

<<A learned person who had devotion to me used to accompany me some times. I told him once “Why are we honored with your company but scarcely?” This learned person said “I do not want to soil your noble session with my thick presence.” I told that person “This is not the case. Come see my companion.” I took him to a corner and showed him a mangy23 dog I used to keep company to. So I told that person “My companion is this animal, so what is this story you are telling!” Then he recited a Persian verse meaning that the dog is in better state than a person who sees his soul worthy and his heart estimable. > So my brother, look at that great humility from that great man: by this he reached what he reached and rose to the levels he rose to, and his Way is founded on this. Shaikh Abu Madyan alluded to this meaning in his “Hikam” where he said:

<<Whoever seeks a state or a level for his nafs (Self), he is remote from the ways of (correct) behavior>>

and al Shaikh Ibn `Ataa’il Laah said, also in his “Hikam“:

<<The root of every disobedience, forgetfulness or desire is contentment with the Self, and the root of every obedience, wakefulness and continence is your dissatisfaction with it. And that you accompany an ignorant who is not pleased with his Self is better for you than accompanying a knowledgeable person who is pleased with his Self. What ignorance is that of an ignorant who is not content with his Self, and what knowledge is that of a knowledgeable person who is content with his Self.>>

This is the tested remedy for the lethal poison, so treat your heart’s poisons with this remedy and you will be cured.

Khaajah `Alaa’u d-Deen reported, may Allah Bless his Soul, that Hadrat al Khaajah (Bahaa’u d-Deen) said:

<<The great (experts) of Haqeeqah said that if the person treading the Way does not see his Self a hundred times less than the Pharaoh’s and meaner, he is not in the Way24.>>

A learned person of that time related that a large multitude in Bukhaara were besieged when a great army arrived from the end of the Qubjaaq desert to that Province. Because of the ultimate crowding they used the roofs as rest areas. One day, Hadrat al Khaajah quddisa sirruh was sitting with a group on the roof he used as Masjid, and where he used to pray the jamaa`ah (congregational prayer). Two students among those devoted to Hadrat al Khaajah happened to enter, and he told them to clean those roofs which were used for rest areas around him and said:

<<I have cleaned the toilets of all Bukhaara’s schools.>>

Hadrat al Khaajah (Bahaa’u d-Deen) quddisa sirruh was reported saying:

< In the beginning of jazhabaat (Divine Attractions) and seeking, I happened to meet a person among those attached with love to Allah. He addressed me and said to me:

<<It appears you are one of the companions.>>

I said:

<<I hope, by the blessing (barakah) of the looks of the beloved ones, to be among the companions.>>

This dear person devoted to Allah asked me:

<<How do you manage time (waqt)?>>

I said:

<<If I find I thank, and if I do not find I patiently endure.>>

This dear one smiled and said:

<<This action you do is easy. The matter is to train your Self such that, if it does not find food nor drinking for one week, it does not disobey against you nor “lift up its head” (in indignation).>>

I supplicated and asked madad (spiritual supply) from this endeared one. He ordered me:

<<Go to the desert until the Self completely detaches from creation, and tread in this method for three days. On the fourth day you will reach the edge of a mountain where a rider on a bare mount will meet you. Salute him and pass him. When you have passed him three feet he will tell you “Young man! I have a loaf for you, take it”, but do not turn toward him.>>

I entered the desert according to his indication and went by that method. Three days passed and on the fourth day I reached the edge of a mountain. That rider faced me as described. I saluted him and passed him at which point he offered me a loaf but I did not turn toward him.>>

Then this dear one ordered me work on mending (people’s) minds, on serving the rejected, the broken (hearted), and those whom nobody cares for, and to place brokenness and humility “in front of me25“. I pursued this matter according to his indication, and treaded a while in this condition. Then this dear one ordered me:

<<You must strive to serve animals and to do so in a state of humility and sincerity, for these too are Allah Ta`aala’s creatures, and the Looks of Lordship lay on them too. And if you see a wound or an ulceration on any one’s back, endeavor to mend it yourself.>>

I performed this service according to his indication for a while, and it was such that if an animal crossed me in the street, I would stop so he passes first and would not precede him. Then he ordered me to serve the streets and told me:

<<If you see anything in the street that creatures dislike, clean it and put it away.>>

I remained in that work for seven years during which there was no time when my sleeve nor my pocket were empty from the dirt that I used to clean from the streets. Each action that this person attached to Allah ordered me, I performed with truthfulness. And I witnessed the result of each of these actions in myself and saw total promotion of my conditions. >>

So my brother, look at that sulook and contemplate these fine attributes. Adorn yourself with a grain therefrom, may you then receive a sniff from this road, for this road is not achieved by abundance of prayer or fasting, it is achieved but by total annihilation and severing attachment to creatures. This is why al Shaikh `Abdu’l Qaadir al Jaylaani quddisa sirruh said:

<<My brothers, I have not arrived to Allah Ta`aala by night vigil, nor day fasting, nor studying knowledge. I have arrived to Allah Ta`aala by generosity, humility and wholesomeness of chest.>>

And his words, may Allah Be Well-Pleased with him explain and affirm what preceded; for what cuts creatures off from their Lord is attachment to dunya (worldly life) and the Self, there being no greater veil than those. By generosity attachment to dunya goes away, by humility attachment to nafs (Self) is removed, and by wholesomeness of chest “others” (than Allah) are erased from the heart, and the subject becomes near to his Lord. Thus Ibn `Ataa’il Laah al Iskandari said in his “Hikam”:

<<Amongst the features of your human nature, draw away from every one that is incompatible with your servanthood, so that you may be responsive to the call of The Real (Al Haqq) and near to His Presence.>>

One gnostic (`aarif) said:

<<It is not important that you transport through this remote distance and get to Mecca or the like. What is important is to transport through the attributes of your Self and get near your Lord.>>

It was reported that in the end (of his development), Hadrat al Khaajah (Bahaa’u d-Deen) quddisa sirruh used to speak about some of his initial sates:

<<During one winter season, when the air was very cold and all waters had frozen, I happened to need ghusl26 during the night. I left that place, and each place I headed to, I found nothing to break the ice with in order to take the water and wash with. I did not want any of the companions to be disturbed because of me, so I informed no one. I had an old fur, so I went out in that cold from Ziyurtoon to Qasru’l `Aarifeen. When I reached the house, not wanting any of those attached to me to know my state, I looked around the house. I eventually found, on the edge of a pool near the Masjid, a pumpkin shell used as a container. With total hardship I broke the ice with it, wounding my hand in the process. So I took water using this pumpkin shell and washed with it. The cold affected me to the extreme so I wore that old fur, and in that night, in that cold, I returned from Qasru’l `Aarifeen to Ziyurtoon.>>

So my brother, contemplate this gnostic in his concern about his external matter and abidance with the details of Sharee`ah: he did not allow that night to pass without being in a state of purity (tahaarah); he did not use the rukhsah (leaner regulation) of tayammum27 as he was directed to abide by `azeemah (firmer regulation) in the previous vision28; he bore the hardship, restricting it to himself, not letting any of his companions know and not causing them to move in that cold, and concealing his problem from them and from his family so as to fulfill his sincerity and (exclusive) dealing with his Lord. (Contemplate this and) you will find the pure 24 carat gold of sulook (manners of the Way), you will understand deeper these people’s perfect care with the details of Sharee`ah, sacrificing not only money and the like but even their persons in the cause of their Lord, and (you will understand deeper) how they were detached from others (than Allah), having no worry but servitude of The Lord. Hadrat al Khaajah (Bahaa’u d-Deen) quddisa sirruh was reported saying:

<< In these states of attraction (jazhabaat) and loss of (normal) consciousness (ghaybaat), I used to go to all places. One winter night when the air was extremely cold, my foot was wounded by thorns and I had an old fur on my shoulder. The yearning occurred to me to visit Sayyid Kulaal, may Allah Have Mercy on him. When I reached the house, al Sayyid (“The Master”) and the students were sitting, and when his blessed eyesight came upon me he asked:

<<who is this?>>

When he recognized me he signaled to get me out of that house immediately. When I got out, my “self” (nafs) came close to “raising its head” (in disdain), disobeying and robbing me the “leash” of submission and iraadah (Willing the way). In that state, Allah’s Will and Caring came upon me so I said:

<<This humiliation I will bear for the sake of Allah’s Good-Pleasure. The door is this, and there is no way to leave it.>>

So I placed the head of humility and broken-ness over the endeared one’s doorstep and said:

<<Whatever state will happen to me, I will not lift my head from this doorstep.>>

The snow was falling slowly and the air was extremely cold. When morning grew nearer, al Sayyid Kulaal came out from the house, placed his foot on my head, lifted my head from the doorstep, took me with him inside the house and gave me good tidings saying:

<<My son, the clothing of this good fortune is your size.>>

With his noble hand he took out the thorns and straws from my feet, cleansed my wounds and was very gentle to me29. >>

Learn, O truthful seeker, the way of seeking and its manners from this story and look at the hardship he sustained of being expelled from the house in that manner and how he countered it by keeping his head at the doorstep until he was honored and accepted.

<<I will not leave the door till you correct my flaw and accept me despite my defect and deficiency If you accept, what dignity and honor for me! and if you refuse, who can I hope for my disobedience?>>

And do not think, O brother, that Hadrat al Sayyid Kulaal ignored (the merit of) Hadrat al Khaajah (Bahaa’u d-Deen) when he ordered him out, or that he did that then to insult him. On the contrary, he knew that “the fire” of exertion and hardship added but excellence to al Khaajah’s pure “gold”, for if pure gold is to be put in a crown and become durable across the ages, it needs a fire to melt away its impurities30. Similarly, people of sulook need the fire of exertions and servitude. So purify the gold of your will (iraadah) O my brother when you are honored with (meeting) men such as these, and let the “fire” of their orders and bans burn inside you so it melts away any ugly features that have contaminated you. Remain around their “club” and oppose those who oppose them, you will win the treasure that never ends. Hadrat al Khaajah `Alaa’u d-Deen, may Allah perfume his resting place, reported that when Hadrat al Khaajah (Bahaa’u d-Deen) quddisa sirruh used to relate his exercises and exertions, he mentioned the tepidness of seekers and said at the end:

<<Each morning when I leave the house I say: perhaps a seeker may be “placing his head on the doorstep”, but find all people to be “shaikhs” with no mureed among them.>>

The Khaajah, may Allah Be Well-Pleased with him, alluded that the mureed‘s necessary condition and manners consist in being between the shaikh’s hands like the dead between the hands of the one washing him, having no will nor choice, but leaving himself to the shaikh to manage him like one manages the dead person when washing him, so he may be cleansed from external and internal impurities. This trait in the mureed is as rare as pure gold, thus only individual after individual ripen and (successfully) “walk” within sulook,

<<this is Allah’s Bounty, He Gives it to whomever He Wills.>>

Hadrat al Khaajah’s previous story confirms and elucidates this meaning. Thus as long as the mureed (person Willing the Way) does not have this trait, he is far from iraadah (Willing the Way). Most mureedeen are clinging to illusions and (self made) beliefs. Whenever they find in their sheiks anything contradicting their beliefs, they object and disobey, thus in reality the are mureedeen of their own beliefs and illusions, not mureedeen of their shaikhs, and whoever is like that, he is a shaikh not a mureed. This is why he said, quddisa sirruh, that they were all shaikhs with no mureed among them.

Hadrat al Khaajah quddisa sirruh was reported saying:

<< I was in Bukhaara and Hadrat al Sayyid Kulaal was in Nasaf, and the yearning occurred to me for his noble companionship. I headed toward Nasaf and when I came to his service he told me:

<<My son, you came at a fine time. We have prepared the kitchen and we want someone to gather the logs for us.>>

I thanked that suggestion and went logging then carried the thorny logs to the kitchen on my back.>>

And he mentioned a Persian verse meaning that the Ka`bah’s beauty I sought was vitalizing me such that the harshness of the logs’ thorns felt like silk. Coming from him quddisa sirruh, this explains and clarifies the previously mentioned manners for, merely upon the shaikh’s suggestion, he carried the thorny logs on his back, joyful and happy with it and considering it as silk. This is why he obtained all he did, rose and climbed until he ascended to the heaven of arrival (wusool). So my brother, if you can not follow these conducts, supplicate and be broken (hearted) outwardly and inwardly in front of them, wash the impurity of disobediences insubordination with the water of istighfaar31, and adorn yourself with the ornament of apology, for whatever can not be totally obtained should not be totally deserted. It was reported that when hadrat al Khaajah (Bahaa’u d-Deen) quddisa sirruh was working on building the masjid in Qasru’l `Aarifeen (together with Sayyid Kilaal’s students), he used to carry the mud over his blessed head and chant a Persian verse meaning:

<<I do your work with my soul, why wouldn’t I. I carry your load over my head, why wouldn’t I?>>

In this action of his, quddisa sirruh, there is conformance (ittibaa`) to the actions of the Prophet Salla’l Laahu `Alaihi Wa Sallam and his Companions during (the siege of) “the ditch” (al Khandaq), for his Way, quddisa sirruh, pivots around conformance. And (in this action of his) there is a indication that the accomplished one does not disdain from serving his master, on the contrary he considers it among his greatest fortunes and highest peaks.

Quoting from al Rashahaat:

<< Mawlaana Muhammad Miskeen who was among the greatest of his age said:

<< When Shaikh Nooru’d Deen died, Khaajah Bahaa’u d-Deen attended the condolences in the city of Bukhaara. His companions distressed with unattractive sounds. Those present were repulsed by their distress and admonished them suppressed them. Everyone present made some comment, and Khaajah Naqshband said: When my time will come, I will teach you how to die. >>

Mawlaana Muhammad said:

<< Thus I was awaiting his end. So when Khaajah Naqshband fell fatally ill he left his house and entered the khalwah (place of seclusion). His companions were with him and he was counseling them with compassion, turning (his attention) frequently toward them. In the “last breath” he stretched his hands in prayer for a long while then wiped his hands over his face and departed.>>

And he said (i.e. the author of Al Rashahaat, Khaajah `Ubaydu’l Laah Ahraar):

<< Khaajah `Alaa’u d-Deen al Ghujdawaani said:

<<I was present when he was dying. When he saw me he said: “O `Alaa’u d-Deen, bring food and eat.” So, in obedience to his order I ate a mouthful or two. He closed his eyes then opened them. When he saw me he said: “eat,” (which repeated) four times. And they were thinking about whom the Khaajah will appoint for khilaafah (succession of his position), the education of mureedeen and their guidance, so he said clairvoyantly: “Do not perturb me at this time; this matter is not in my hand. If Allah Ta`aala Gives you that state32, then it will be the rukhsah (provisional permission) for you to educate unaccomplished persons.”>>

Khaajah `Ali said:

<<The Khaajah (Bahaa’u d-Deen) ordered me to dig the grave. When I was finished I came back to him and the question crossed my mind about who will he appoint in his place. He said with his clairvoyance: “My words are those I spoke in the Hijaaz journey”, meaning: “Whoever wants to follow me, let him follow Khaajah Muhammad Paarsa”. Then he departed in the second following day.>>

Khaajah `Alaa’u d-Deen al `Attaar said:

<<During his last moments, I started reading Surah Ya Seen. When I read half the Surah, numerous lights appeared, so I stopped reading Ya Seen and worked on the “purified word” (La Ilaaha Illa Llaah), then his breath stopped. He was seventy three years old and died the night of Monday, the thirteenth of Rabee` Al Awwal, 791 (Hijri).>>

And do not oversee that the most accomplished and most esteemed among Khaajah Bahaa’u d-Deen’s successors are Khaajah `Alaa’u d-Deen and Khaajah Muhammad Paarsa. Yet he had numerous companions… and even though Khaajah `Alaa’u d-Deen was among his greatest successors and most esteemed companions, yet I will only mention him after all other companions because his section includes numerous follow-ups and supplements. >

1.      Bahaa’u l-Haqq Wa’l Haqeeqah Wa’d Deen: “The Splendor of Truth, Reality and Religion.”

2.      The text from “Al Rashahaat” was used to correct this translation.

3.      Wilaayah: Love and intimate acceptance by Allah Ta`aala.

4.      Karaamah: Honoring by Allah.

5.      See Chapter Error! Main Document Only. concerning the spiritual “Uwaysi” link.

6.      This continuation of Shaah Naqshband’s words is from “Al Rashahaat“.

7.      Hijaaz: Region of the Arabian Peninsula including Maccah and Madeenah.

8.      The text from `Abdu’l Majeed Muhammad al Khaani’s “Al Hadaa’iq Al Wardiyyah” (1306 Hijri) is clearer and was used to correct this translation (p. 126).

9.      The text from “Al Hadaa’iq Al Wardiyyah” (or al Rashahaat?) was used to correct this translation.

10.  The text from “Al Hadaa’iq Al Wardiyyah” (or al Rashahaat?) was used to correct this translation.

11.  This could have been any beloved member of the Khaajeh’s family. This person’s identity is not relevant to the story, and out of extreme Islamic manners and chivalry, one does not disclose unnecessary details about his intimate life, no matter how minute.

12.  The text from “Al Hadaa’iq Al Wardiyyah” was used to correct this translation (pp. 127-128).

13.  According to “al Qamoos” Arabic dictionary, one “league” (farsakh) is approximately 10,000 yards or 5.68 miles. Four such leagues would be 22.7 miles.

14.  i.e. “La Ilaaha Illa Llaah“.

15.  The text from “Al Hadaa’iq Al Wardiyyah” was used to correct this translation (p. 128).

16.  Jazhbah: Divine Attraction.

17.  Ghaybah: Loss of normal consciousness.

18.  These are equal to the modern hour: Under “saa`ah” (hour) in “Lisaan al `Arab” (LA.), the day and night period is divided into twenty four “hours”.

19.  “Turning” (tawajjuh) is literally an attempt of the spirit to turn toward an aim or an object for its perception. The states that may accompany this tawajjuh (“turning”) are implied from the circumstances and not from the word tawajjuh itself. Thus when one “turns” toward Allah in zhikr or supplication, this obviously requires a state of servitude or worship because it is the normal befitting attitude toward Allah, not because it is the meaning of “turning”: it is not. When one “turns” toward a virtuous spirit, one perceives states of this spirituality, with the resulting effects such as those described in the text. And when a shaikh is said to turn toward a student or a sick person, again he is merely directing his spiritual perception toward him while normally supplicating Allah for the sake of that person.

20.  See footnote above.

21.  Denying existence: not getting attached to existence, denying it (especially one’s own existence) from one’s consciousness keeping this latter solely occupied with Allah.

22.  Those astonished by this saying must remember the famous supplication taught by the Prophet Salla’l Laahu `Alaihi Wa Sallam according to an authentic hadeeth

<<… O Allah, do not Leave me to my Self for the blink of an eye>>

and the other hadeeth

<<Your direst enemy is your Self within your chest (weak, but whose meaning is supported by the previous hadeeth.>>

which actually confirm the total absence of any good within the Self (nafs). A common rhetoric confuses the issue and claims credit to what has been affirmed to come but from Allah:

<<But I am a believer and there is good in that!>>

In fact, Allah Said:

<<Were it not for Allah’s Bounty upon you and Mercy, none of you would have been purified

and in Paradise the believers say:

<<Praise be to Allah who Guided us to this, and we would not have found the right path had Allah not Guided us

(?:?) verify this translation of mine against Y. Ali and Piktal


See footnote Error! Main Document Only., page 147 for more.

23-           Mangy: infected with mangue, a skin disease.

24-           See footnote Error! Main Document Only., page 147 for more.

25-           i.e. viewing but brokenness and humility.

26-           Ghusl: Total ablution, washing the whole body.

27-            Tayammum: Substitution for ablution, performed by wiping the face and arms with dust or soil in the absence of water.

28-           See page 204.

29-           Thus showing that Sayyid Kilaal’s previous behavior was only a test and training to his student, and that he was indeed so humble that, when the “test” was over, he cleaned his student’s feet with his own hands.

30-           Sayyid Kulaal’s treatment of his student and his final remarks show his correct “assessment” of “strength” of character as described by the Prophet Salla’l Laahu `Alaihi Wa Sallam:

<<The “tough” person is not him who knocks people down, the “tough” person is him who controls himself when angry.>>

(Authentic hadeeth narrated by Bukhaari, Muslim and Ahmad, all citing Abu Hurayrah, FQ. Vol. 5, p. 358, No. 7577.) Imaam al Munaawi wrote in his explanation of this hadeeth (ibid.): < … the “tough” person is him who holds back his rage when irritated, resists his ego and overcomes it, thus transforming it from external to internal strength. Whoever reigns over his own “self” (ego), then he has overpowered his strongest opponent and direst enemy as indicated in the hadeeth:

<<your direst enemy is your Self within your chest>>

. >                    Faced with seeming humiliation, all but the “toughest” people would break. In this case, Shaah Naqshband exerted outstanding self control and as he stated, he refrained from rebellion. When his humility and self-control were thus polished, his teacher confirmed his appreciation of his high aptitude.

31-           Istighfaar: Praying Allah for forgiveness

32-           i.e. being, so to speak, “overpowered” by a “state” whereby education of others happens almost instinctively and without premeditation nor pondering about such education as a “position” to arrive to: For example the shaikh may find no other alternative, whereby he can remain in constant zhikr (mention) of Allah, but to provide necessary advice or guidance to people in need, otherwise he would notice the zhikr (mention) of Allah as if instantaneously dwindling within himself. Needless to say, only those capable of sustaining the zhikr of Allah in the heart can discern between this genuine haal (state) and the whims of one’s Ego or Satan’s tricks.