Refutations of Ibn Taymiyya’s Two Tawheeds

“What is intended here is the exposition of the absolute state of the servant to Allah, who worships Him and seeks His help and so acts with a view to Him and seeks His help (in doing so), and His saying ” iyyaka na`budu wa iyyaka nasta`een ” [Thee alone do we worship and Thee alone do we ask for help] substantiates (yuHaqqiq‘tawHeed al-uloohiyya’ and ‘tawheed al-rububiyya,‘ although Godhead (al-ilaahiyya) comprises (tataDamman) lordship (al-ruboobiyya), whereas lordship stands in need of (tastalzim) godhead. Therefore, even if one, when mentioned by itself, comprises the other (i.e. Godhead comprises Lordship), it is nevertheless not prevented from bearing a specific meaning unto itself when it is mentioned in contrast with the other.

“For example, in His saying: ‘qul a`oodhu bi rabb al-naas’ [Say: I seek refuge in the Lord of mankind], He has reunited the two nouns (i.e. Godhead and Lordship), since the God (al-ilaah) is the object of worship that has a right to such worship (al-ma`bood al-ladhi yastaHiqqu an yu`bad) while the Lord (al-rabb) is the one who has authority over His servant (al-ladhi yurabbi `abdah).”

3. Minhaj ahl al-sunna‘ of Ibn Taymiyya (Bulaaq: al-maTba`a al-kubra al-ameeriyya, 1321/1904) vol. 2 p. 62

“The (Ash`ari) theologians (al-mutakallimoon)… have fallen short of the knowledge of the rational proofs which Allah mentioned in His Book, so they strayed from them and went into different, innovated directions which, due to the falsehoods contained in them, they went out of some of the truth which they and other than them share in believing, and they entered into some of the innovated falsehoods, and they have taken out from tawHeed what belongs to it, for example, ‘tawheed al-ilaahiyya’ and the establishment of the literalness of Allah’s Names and Attributes. They did not know, of tawheed, other than the ‘tawheed al-rububiyya’ which consists in affirming that Allah is the Creator of all things, and this tawHeed was affirmed by those who associated partners to Allah (al-mushrikoon), about whom Allah said: “If thou shouldst ask them: Who created the heavens and the earth? They would answer: Allah“ (31:25), and He said: “Say: Who is Lord of the seven heavens, and Lord of the Tremendous Throne? They will say: Unto Allah all that belongeth”(23:6-87), and He said of them: “And most of them believe not in Allah except that they attribute partners unto Him“ (12:106). So does the group that is from the belief of the early generations (al-Taa’ifatu min al-salaf) say to them (the Ash`aris): Who has created the heavens and the earth? And they reply: Allah. And yet together with this they worship other than him (wa hum ma`a dhaalika ya`budoona ghayrah). For verily the tawHeed which Allah has ordered unto His servants is the ‘tawHeed al- uloohiyya’ which comprises the tawHeed al-ruboobiyya,‘ and is that they worship Allah and not attribute anything as partner to Him, in order that religion (deen) belong in totality to Allah.”

[Note: In the above quote Ibn Taymiyya equates idolaters and polytheists (mushrikoon) with Muslims, and he equates the Ash`ari scholars of kalaam, i.e. those who used rational discourse as a method of theological enquiry from al-Ash`ari (d. 324 H) to his own time (d. 728 H), the same as polytheists in belief (`aqeeda).]

4. ‘Risaalat ahl al-Suffa‘ of Ibn Taymiyya p. 34:

” ‘ TawHeed al-ruboobiyya ‘ by itself does not negate disbelief in Allah [kufr] and does not suffice.”

[Note: Here Ibn Taymiyya questions the tawheed of all Muslims indiscriminately.]

I say: Ibn Taymiyya has camouflaged the writings which he has inflicted upon the uneducated and their likes among the half-educated (al-mutafaqqiha) with a lot of sayings by the pious early generations (al-salaf al-SaaliH) and quotations from the Book and the Sunna, in order to further and promote his heretic tendencies (hawaah) in their market.

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